OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 10 — Oct. 31, 2007

Intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with narrow-ridge microfluidic quantum cascade lasers

Mikhail A. Belkin, Marko Lončar, Benjamin G. Lee, Christian Pflügl, Ross Audet, Laurent Diehl, Federico Capasso, David Bour, Scott Corzine, and Gloria Höfler  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 18, pp. 11262-11271 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.011262


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1772 KB) Open Access





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate microfluidic laser intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared λ≈9µm quantum cascade lasers. A deep-etched narrow ridge waveguide laser is placed in a microfluidic chamber. The evanescent tails of the laser mode penetrate into a liquid on both sides of the ridge. The absorption lines of the liquid modify the laser waveguide loss, resulting in significant changes in the laser emission spectrum and the threshold current. A volume of liquid as small as ~10pL may, in principle, be sufficient for sensing using the proposed technique. This method, similar to the related gas-phase technique, shows promise as a sensitive means of detecting chemicals in small volumes of solutions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(300.6260) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, diode lasers
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2007
Revised Manuscript: August 12, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 16, 2007
Published: August 21, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Mikhail A. Belkin, Marko Loncar, Benjamon G. Lee, Christian Pflugl, Ross Audet, Laurent Diehl, Federico Capasso, David Bour, Scott Corzine, and Gloria Hofler, "Intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with narrow-ridge microfluidic quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11262-11271 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11262


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hofler, M. Loncar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34-40 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic Press, Boston, MA 1991).
  4. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Charlton, F. de Melas, A. Inberg, N. Croitoru, and B. Mizaikoff, "Hollow-waveguide gas sensing with room-temperature quantum cascade lasers, "IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 150, 306-309 (2003) [CrossRef]
  6. B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Chen, Z. Liu, C. Gmachl, and D. Sivco, "Silver halide fiber-based evanescent-wave liquid droplet sensing with room temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 13, 5953-5960 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Charlton, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, "Infrared evanescent field sensing with quantum cascade lasers and planar silver halide waveguides," Anal. Chem. 77, 4398-4403 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, B. Mizaikoff, "Fabrication and characterization of molecular beam epitaxy grown thin-film GaAs waveguides for mid-infrared evanescent field chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 4224-4227 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Schaden, A. Domínguez-Vidal, and B. Lendl, "Quantum cascade laser modulation for correction of matrix-induced background changes in aqueous samples," Appl. Phys. B 86, 347-351 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Erickson and D. Li, "Integrated microfluidic devices," Anal. Chim. Acta 507, 11-26 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light," Nat. Photonics. 1, 106-114 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Verpoorte, "Chip vision - optics for microchips," Lab Chip 3, 42N-52N (2003).
  16. L. Diehl, B.G. Lee, P. Behroozi, M. Lončar, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, T. Aellen, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Microfluidic tuning of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 11660-11667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Verpoorte, A. Manz, H. Lüdi, A.E. Bruno, F. Maystre, B. Krattiger, H. M. Widmer, B.H. van der Schoot, and N.F. de Rooij, "A silicon flow cell for optical detection in miniaturized total chemical analysis systems," Sens. Actuators B 6, 66-70 (1992). [CrossRef]
  18. K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. C. Galas, C. Peroz, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, "Microfluidic dye laser intracavity absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett 89, 224101 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, "Quantum-cascade lasers based on bound-to-continuum transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 147-149 (2001). [CrossRef]
  21. R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Lončar, B.G. Lee, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Design and fabrication of photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers for optofluidics," Opt. Express 15, 4499-4514 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Z. Chen, Z. Liu, Y. S. Rumala, D. L. Sivco, and C. F. Gmachl, "Direct liquid cooling of room-temperature operated quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 534-535 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited