OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2008

The divided aperture technique for microscopy through scattering media

Colin J. R. Sheppard, Wei Gong, and Ke Si  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 21, pp. 17031-17038 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (378 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A diffraction analysis is presented for image formation in confocal microscopy using the divided aperture technique, which uses two D-shaped apertures (also called specular microscopy). The effects of increasing the width of a divider, that separates the two D shapes, are investigated. As the width is increased, the resolution degrades. The efficiency of singly-scattered light rejection is not improved with increased width.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 6, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 10, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 11, 2008
Published: October 10, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Colin J. Sheppard, Wei Gong, and Ke Si, "The divided aperture technique for microscopy through scattering media," Opt. Express 16, 17031-17038 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. J. Dwyer and C. A. DiMarzio, "Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo," Opt. Lett. 31, 942-944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, "Confocal theta line-scanning microscope for imaging human tissues," Appl. Opt. 46, 1843-1851 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Siedentopf and R. Zsigmondy, "Uber Sichtbarmachung und Grössenbestimmung ultramikroskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser," Annalen der Physik 10, 1-39 (1903).
  4. H. Goldman, "Spaltlampenphotographie und -photometrie," Ophthalmologica 98, 257-270 (1940). [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Maurice, "Cellular membrane activity in the corneal endothelium of the intact eye," Experientia 15, 1094-1095 (1968). [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Maurice, "A scanning slit optical microscope," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 1033-1037 (1974). [PubMed]
  7. C. J. Koester, "A scanning mirror microscope with optical sectioning characteristics: Applications in ophthalmology," Appl. Opt. 19, 1749-1757 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. J. Koester, "Comparison of optical sectioning methods: The scanning slit confocal microscope," in Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1990).
  9. E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, S. Albrecht, R. Pick, G. Ritter, N. J. Salmon, and R. Stricker, "A new tool for the observation of embryos and other large specimens - confocal theta-fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 179, 1-10 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, and G. S. Kino, "Dual-axis confocal microscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 414-416 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. H. Voie, D. H. Burns, and F. A. Spelman, "Orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning: three-dimensional imaging of macroscopic biological specimens," J. Microsc. 170, 229-236 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy," Science 305, 1007-1009 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. F. Aguilar, M. Lera, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging of spheres by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 4621-4628 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, "Optimization of axial resolution in confocal imaging using annular pupils," Optik 93, 87-90 (1993).
  15. M. Gu, T. Tannous, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Effect of numerical aperture, pinhole size and annular pupil on confocal imaging through highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21, 312-314 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. H. Linfoot and E. Wolf, "Diffraction images in systems with an annular aperture," Proc. Phys. Soc. B 66, 145-149 (1953). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1959), p. 440.
  18. P. Török, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Laczik, "The effect of half-stop lateral misalignment on imaging of dark-field and stereoscopic confocal microscopes," Appl. Opt. 35, 6732-6739 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), p. 253.
  20. C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Depth of field in the scanning microscope," Opt. Lett. 3, 115-117 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. J. R. Sheppard and M. D. Sharma, "Integrated intensity, and imaging through scattering media," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1517-1525 (2001).
  22. X. S. Gan and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Detectability: A new criterion for evaluation of the confocal microscope," Scanning 15, 187-192 (1993). [CrossRef]
  23. C. J. R. Sheppard, X. Gan, M. Gu, and M. Roy, "Noise in confocal microscopes," in The Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd edition ed., J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp. 363-370.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (467 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (418 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited