OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 8 — Jul. 30, 2009

Spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for signal detection from image sequences

Luca Caucci, Harrison H. Barrett, and Jeffrey J. Rodríguez  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 10946-10958 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (179 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Detection of signals in noisy images is necessary in many applications, including astronomy and medical imaging. The optimal linear observer for performing a detection task, called the Hotelling observer in the medical literature, can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar prewhitening matched filter. Performance on the detection task is limited by randomness in the image data, which stems from randomness in the object, randomness in the imaging system, and randomness in the detector outputs due to photon and readout noise, and the Hotelling observer accounts for all of these effects in an optimal way. If multiple temporal frames of images are acquired, the resulting data set is a spatio-temporal random process, and the Hotelling observer becomes a spatio-temporal linear operator. This paper discusses the theory of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer and estimation of the required spatio-temporal covariance matrices. It also presents a parallel implementation of the observer on a cluster of Sony PLAYSTATION 3 gaming consoles. As an example, we consider the use of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for exoplanet detection.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.5490) General : Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
(030.4280) Coherence and statistical optics : Noise in imaging systems
(110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
(110.4155) Imaging systems : Multiframe image processing
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: April 20, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 9, 2009
Published: June 16, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Luca Caucci, Harrison H. Barrett, and Jeffrey J. Rodriguez, "Spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for signal detection from image sequences," Opt. Express 17, 10946-10958 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (JohnWiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1966).
  2. H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. Part III, Radar-sonar Signal Processing and Gaussian Signals in Noise (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 2001).
  3. K. J. Myers, H. H. Barrett, M. C. Borgstrom, D. D. Patton, and G. W. Seeley, "Effect of Noise Correlation on Detectability of Disk Signals in Medical Imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1752-1759 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. J. Starr, C. E. Metz, L. B. Lusted, and D. J. Goodenough, "Visual detection and localization of radiographic images," Radiology 116, 533-538 (1975). [PubMed]
  5. D. W. Hughes, "Nonsolar Planets and Their Detection," Nature 279, 579 (1979). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tamura, "Extra-solar Planet Detection," Viva Origino 30, 157-161 (2002).
  7. J. O. Berger, Statistical Decision Theory, Foundations, Concepts, and Methods (Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1980).
  8. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 2001).
  9. J. L. Melsa and D. L. Cohn, Decision and Estimation Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1978).
  10. R. N. McDonough and A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signal in Noise (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1995).
  11. S. Park, E. Clarkson, M. A. Kupinski, and H. H. Barrett, "Efficiency of the human observer detecting random signals in random backgrounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 3-16 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. Hobson and C. McLachlan, "A Bayesian Approach to Discrete Object Detection in Astronomical Data Sets," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338, 765-784 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. Kasdin and I. Braems, "Linear and Bayesian Planet Detection Algorithms for the Terrestrial Planet Finder," Astrophys. J. 646, 1260-1274 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. H. W. Babcock, "The Possibility of Compensating Astronomical Seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229-236 (1953). [CrossRef]
  15. R. K. Tyson, Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2000).
  16. R. Akbarpour, S. N. Friedman, J. H. Siewerdsen, J. D. Neary, and I. A. Cunningham, "Signal and noise transfer in spatiotemporal quantum-based imaging systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B151-B164 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. G. K. Yadava, S. Rudinacd, A. T. Kuhls-Gilcristab, and D. R. Bednarek, "Generalized Objective Performance Assessment of a New High-Sensitivity Microangiographic Fluoroscopic (HSMAF) Imaging System," Proc. SPIE 6913, 69130U (2008).
  18. H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, and E. Clarkson, "Objective Assessment of Image Quality. III. ROC Metrics, Ideal Observers, and Likelihood-generating Functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1520-1535 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. Hanley and B. J. McNeil, "The Meaning and use of the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve," Radiology 143, 29-36 (1982). [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Park, J. M. Goo, and C.-H. Jo, "Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve: Practical Review for Radiologists," Korean J. Radiol. 5, 11-18 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2004).
  22. H. Hotelling, "The Generalization of Student’s Ratio," Ann. Math. Stat. 2, 360-378 (1931). [CrossRef]
  23. H. H. Barrett, K. J. Myers, N. Devaney, and J. C. Dainty, "Objective Assessment of Image Quality: IV. Application to Adaptive Optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3080-3105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. E. Clarkson, "Estimation receiver operating characteristic curve and ideal observers for combined detection/ estimation tasks," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B91-B98 (2007). [CrossRef]
  25. L. Caucci, H. H. Barrett, N. Devaney, and J. J. Rodr’ıguez, "Application of the Hotelling and ideal observers to detection and localization of exoplanets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B13-B24 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. D. Burke, N. Devaney, S. Gladysz, H. H. Barrett, M. K. Whitaker, and L. Caucci, "Optimal linear estimation of binary star parameters," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152J (2008).
  27. H. H. Barrett, K. J. Myers, B. D. Gallas, E. Clarkson, and H. Zhang, "Megalopinakophobia: Its symptoms and cures," Proc. SPIE 4320, 299-307 (2001).
  28. D. J. Tylavsky and G. R. L. Sohie, "Generalization of the Matrix Inversion Lemma," Proc. IEEE 74, 1050-1052 (1986). [CrossRef]
  29. M. S. Bartlett, "An Inverse Matrix Adjustment Arising in Discriminant Analysis," Ann. Math. Stat. 22, 107-111 (1951). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Sherman and W. J. Morrison, "Adjustment of an Inverse Matrix Corresponding to a Change in One Element of a Given Matrix," Ann. Math. Stat. 21, 124-127 (1950). [CrossRef]
  31. H. V. Henderson and S. R. Searle, "On Deriving the Inverse of a Sum of Matrices," SIAM Rev. 23, 53-60 (1981). [CrossRef]
  32. J. A. Kahle, M. N. Day, H. P. Hofstee, C. R. Johns, T. R. Maeurer, and D. Shippy, "Introduction to the Cell Multiprocessor," IMB J. Res. Dev. 49, 589-604 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. D. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. Harvey, H. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, D. Stasiak, O. Suzuoki, M. Takahashi, J. Warnock, S. Weitzel, D. Wendel, and K. Yazawa, "Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation Cell Processor," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006). [CrossRef]
  34. P. Hofstee, "Introduction to the Cell Broadband Engine," Tech. Rep., IBM Corporation, Riverton, NJ (2005).
  35. S. Williams, J. Shalf, L. Oliker, S. Kamil, P. Husbands, and K. Yelick, "The potential of the Cell Processor for scientific computing," in Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Computing Frontiers, pp. 9-20 (ACM, New York, NY, 2006). [CrossRef]
  36. D. A. Bader, V. Agarwal, K. Madduri, and S. Kang, "High performance combinatorial algorithm design on the Cell Broadband Engine processor," Parallel Comput. 33, 720-740 (2007). [CrossRef]
  37. I. W. C. Benthin, M. Scherbaum, and H. Friedrich, "Ray tracing on the Cell Processor," in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing, pp. 15-23 (2006). [CrossRef]
  38. M. Sakamoto and M. Murase, "Parallel implementation for 3-D CT image reconstruction on Cell Broadband Engine™," in IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 276-279 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. M. Kachelrieß, M. Knaup, and O. Bockenbach, "Hyperfast parallel-beam and cone-beam backprojection using the Cell general purpose hardware," Med. Phys. 34, 1474-1486 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. R. Parenti and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser-guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994). [CrossRef]
  41. D. L. Fried, "Statistics of a Geometric Representation of Wavefront Distortion," J. Opt. Soc. Am 55, 1427-1435 (1965). [CrossRef]
  42. M. P. Fitzgerald and J. R. Graham, "Speckle Statistics in Adaptively Corrected Images," Astrophys. J. 637, 541-547 (2006). [CrossRef]
  43. G. L. Turin, "An introduction to matched filters," IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 6, 311-329 (1960). [CrossRef]
  44. D. Middleton, An Introduction to Statistical Communication Theory (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1960).
  45. B. D. Gallas, "One-shot estimate of MRMC Variance: AUC," Acad. Radiol. 13, 353-362 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. E. Bertin and S. Arnouts, "SEXTRACTOR: Software for source extraction," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 117, 393-404 (1996). [CrossRef]
  47. L. Caucci, "Point Detection and Hotelling Discriminant: An Application in Adaptive Optics," Master’s thesis, University of Arizona (2007).
  48. C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, "Human- and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-488 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited