OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2009

Computational signal-to-noise ratio analysis for optical quadrature microscopy

William C. Warger, II and Charles A. DiMarzio  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 4, pp. 2400-2422 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.002400


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (758 KB) Open Access





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) was invented in 1997 to reconstruct a full-field image of quantitative phase, and has been used to count the number of cells in live mouse embryos. Here we present a thorough SNR analysis that incorporates noise terms for fluctuations in the laser, aberrations within the individual paths of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and imperfections within the beamsplitters and CCD cameras to create a model for the resultant phase measurements. The current RMS error of the OQM phase images has been calculated to be 0.08 radians from substituting images from the instrumentation into the model.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.4280) Coherence and statistical optics : Noise in imaging systems
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: October 17, 2008
Revised Manuscript: December 28, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 8, 2009
Published: February 5, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
William C. Warger II and Charles A. DiMarzio, "Computational signal-to-noise ratio analysis for optical quadrature microscopy," Opt. Express 17, 2400-2422 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2400


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. C. DiMarzio, "Optical quadrature interferometry utilizing polarization to obtain in-phase and quadrature information," U.S. Patent No. 5,883,717, Mar. 16, 1999.
  2. C. DiMarzio, "Optical quadrature interferometer," U.S. Patent No. 6,020,963, Feb. 1, 2000.
  3. D. O. Hogenboom, C. A. DiMarzio, T. J. Gaudette, A. J. Devaney, and S. C. Lindberg, "Three-dimensional images generated by quadrature interferometry," Opt. Lett. 23, 783-785 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. V. N. Bringi and V. Chandrasekar, Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 37-38.
  5. D. O. Hogenboom and C. A. DiMarzio, "Quadrature detection of a Doppler signal," Appl. Opt. 37, 2569-2572 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Glina, G. A. Tsihrintzis, C. M. Warner, D. O. Hogenboom, and C. A. DiMarzio, "On the use of the optical quadrature method in tomographic microscopy," Proc. SPIE  3605, 101-106 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Stott, R. E. Bennett, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Three-dimensional imaging with a quadrature tomographic microscope," Proc. SPIE 4261, 24-32 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. Townsend, K. D. Quarles, A. L. Thomas, W. S. Rockward, C. M. Warner, J. A. Newmark, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Quantitative Phase Measurements Using a Quadrature Tomographic Microscope," Proc. SPIE 4964, 59-65 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. Warner, J. A. Newmark, M. Comiskey, S. R. De Fazio, D. M. O’Malley, M. Rajadhyaksha, D. J. Townsend, S. McKnight, B. Roysam, P. J. Dwyer, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Genetics and imaging to assess oocyte and preimplantation embryo health," Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 16, 729-741 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative phase tomography," Opt. Commun. 175, 329-336 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, and T. Colomb, "Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 178-180 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Tomographic Phase Microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 717-719 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. S. Marx and D. Psaltis, "Polarization quadrature measurement of subwavelength diffracting structures," Appl. Opt. 36, 6434-6440 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, X. Cui, X. Heng, and C. Yang, "Harmonically-related diffraction gratings-based interferometer for quadrature phase measurements," Opt. Express 14, 8127-8137 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Lebedeff, "Polarization interferometer and its applications," Rev. Opt., Theor. Instrum. 9, 385 (1930).
  16. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2503-2505 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 1165-1167 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics," Opt. Lett. 31, 775-777 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, "Phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1268-1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Dubois, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, "Sinusoidally phase modulated interference microscope for high-speed high-resolution topographic imagery," Opt. Lett. 26, 1873-1875 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 2399 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, M. Miwa, and Y. Yamashita, "Low-coherent quantitative phase microscope for nanometer-scale measurement of living cells morphology," Opt. Express 16, 12227-12238 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Noninterferometric Phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998). [CrossRef]
  25. A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998). [CrossRef]
  26. C. Preza, "Rotational-diversity phase estimation from differential interference contrast microscopy images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 415-424 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, "Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images," J. Microsc. 199, 79-84 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, "Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 7-12 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. Heise, A. Sonnleitner, and E. P. Klement, "DIC image reconstruction on large cell scans," Microsc. Res. Tech. 66, 312-320 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Ishiwata, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "A new method of three dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope," Opt. Commun. 260, 117-126 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Shribak and S. Inoue, "Orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 460-469 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. A. Newmark, W. C. WargerII, C. C. Chang, G. E. Herrera, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. M. Warner, "Determination of the Number of Cells in Preimplantation Embryos by Using Non-invasive Optical Quadrature Microscopy in Conjunction with Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy," Microsc. Microanal. 13, 118-127 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. W. C. WargerII, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Phase subtraction cell counting method for live mouse embryos beyond the eight-cell stage," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. C. WargerII and C. A. DiMarzio, "Modeling of optical quadrature microscopy for imaging mouse embryos," Proc. SPIE 6861, 68610T (2008). [CrossRef]
  35. L. W. CouchII, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 4th Ed. (Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993) 303 and 389.
  36. W. C. WargerII, G. S. Laevsky, D. J. Townsend, M. Rajadhyaksha, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Multimodal optical microscope for detecting viability of mouse embryos in vitro," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044006 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. L. Tsai, W. C. WargerII, G. S. Laevsky, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Alignment with sub-pixel accuracy for images of multi-modality microscopes using automatic calibration," J. Microsc.,  232, 164-176 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999) 523-525.
  39. K. Creath, "Phase-Measurement Interferometry Techniques," Progress in Optics 26, E. Wolf (Elsevier Science Publishers, 1988), 349-393. [CrossRef]
  40. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).
  41. S. Braganza and M. Lesser, "An efficient implementation of a phase unwrapping kernel on reconfigurable hardware," Proc. Application-Specific Systems, Architectures, and Processors (IEEE, 2008) 138-143.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited