OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 10 — Jul. 19, 2010

Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles measured using one or two excitation wavelengths: Comparison of classification schemes employing different emission and scattering results

Yong-Le Pan, Steven C. Hill, Ronald G. Pinnick, Hermes Huang, Jerold R. Bottiger, and Richard K. Chang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 12, pp. 12436-12457 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (5402 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An improved Dual-wavelength-excitation Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer (DPFS) has been reported. It measures two fluorescence spectra excited sequentially by lasers at 263 nm and 351 nm, from single atmospheric aerosol particles in the 1-10 μm diameter size range. Here we investigate the different levels of discrimination capability obtained when different numbers of excitation and fluorescence-emission wavelengths are used for analysis. We a) use the DPFS to measure fluorescence spectra of Bacillus subtilis and other aerosol particles, and a 25-hour sample of atmospheric aerosol at an urban site in Maryland, USA; b) analyze the data using six different algorithms that employ different levels of detail of the measured data; and c) show that when more of the data measured by the DPFS is used, the ability to discriminate among particle types is significantly increased.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.1100) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosol detection
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: April 6, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 19, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2010
Published: May 26, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Yong-Le Pan, Steven C. Hill, Ronald G. Pinnick, Hermes Huang, Jerold R. Bottiger, and Richard K. Chang, "Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles measured using one or two excitation wavelengths: Comparison of classification schemes employing different emission and scattering results," Opt. Express 18, 12436-12457 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Jaenicke, “Abundance of cellular material and proteins in the atmosphere,” Science 308(5718), 73 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Jaenicke, S. Matthias-Maser, and S. Gruber, “Omnipresence of biological material in the atmosphere,” Environ. Chem. 4(4), 217–220 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Herckes, M. P. Hannigan, L. Trenary, T. Lee, and J. L. Collett, “Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis, California,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 99–108 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, and I. Ganszky, “Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8339 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gelencser, A. Hoffer, Z. Krivacsy, G. Kiss, A. Molnar, and E. Meszaros, “On the possible origin of humic matter in fine continental aerosol ,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH2 1–5 (2002).
  10. M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. V. Samburova, R. Zenobi, and M. Kalberer, “Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(8), 2163–2170 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, “Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(3), 471–482 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).
  17. P. H. Kaye, J. E. Barton, E. Hirst, and J. M. Clark, “Simultaneous light scattering and intrinsic fluorescence measurement for the classification of airborne particles,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3738–3745 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. R. DeFreez, “LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now,” Proc. SPIE 7484, 74840H (15 pp.) (2009).
  19. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Chen, P. Nachman, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Conditional-firing aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer for individual airborne particles with pulsed 266-nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1307–1309 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Manninen, M. Putkiranta, J. Saarela, A. Rostedt, T. Sorvajärvi, J. Toivonen, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, and R. Hernberg, “Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4320–4328 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Particle-fluorescence spectrometer for real-time single-particle measurements of atmospheric organic carbon and biological aerosol,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(2), 429–434 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. H. Kaye, W. R. Stanley, E. Hirst, E. V. Foot, K. L. Baxter, and S. J. Barrington, “Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3583–3593 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. V. Sivaprakasam, A. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. Eversole, “Multiple UV wavelength excitation of bioaerosols,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4457 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. V. Sivaprakasam, T. Pletcher, J. E. Tucker, A. L. Huston, J. McGinn, D. Keller, and J. D. Eversole, “Classification and selective collection of individual aerosol particles using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B126–B136 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008). [CrossRef]
  36. Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, H. Huang, and R. K. Chang, “Dual-wavelength-excitation single-particle fluorescence spectrometer/particle sorter for real-time measurement of organic carbon and biological aerosols,” Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence IV, Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160J–1-8 (2008).
  37. H. C. Huang, Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, and R. K. Chang, “Real-time measurement of dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of individual aerosol particles,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16523–16528 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. J. Cole, M. A. Schweikert, and B. B. Jarvis, Handbook of Secondary Fungal Metabolites, (Academic, New York, 2003), Vol. 1–3.
  39. I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules, (Academic, New York, 1971), 2nd ed.
  40. C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004). [CrossRef]
  41. R. C. Moffet and K. A. Prather, “In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates,” P. National Academy of Sciences 106, 11872–11877 (2009). [CrossRef]
  42. Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000). [CrossRef]
  43. C. L. Muller, A. Baker, R. Hutchinson, I. J. Fairchild, and C. Kidd, “Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry,” Atmos. Environ. 42(34), 8036–8045 (2008). [CrossRef]
  44. V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007). [CrossRef]
  45. J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998). [CrossRef]
  46. R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon,” Atmos. Environ. 38(11), 1657–1672 (2004). [CrossRef]
  47. H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008). [CrossRef]
  48. J. A. Huffman, B. Treutlein, and U. Pöschl, “Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(7), 3215–3233 (2010). [CrossRef]
  49. J. D. Hybl, S. M. Tysk, S. R. Berry, and M. P. Jordan, “Laser-induced fluorescence-cued, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy biological-agent detection,” Appl. Opt. 45(34), 8806–8814 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. E. J. McJimpsey, P. T. Steele, K. R. Coffee, P. Fergenson, V. J. Riot, B. W. Woods, E. E. Gard, M. Frank, H. J. Tobias, and C. Lebrilla, “Detection of Biological Particles in Ambient Air Using BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry,” Proc. SPIE 6218, Chemical and Biological Sensing VII, 62180B (2006).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited