OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 9 — Jul. 6, 2010

3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea

Mingtao Zhao, Anthony N Kuo, and Joseph A Izatt  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 8923-8936 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1169 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Capable of three-dimensional imaging of the cornea with micrometer-scale resolution, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) offers potential advantages over Placido ring and Scheimpflug photography based systems for accurate extraction of quantitative keratometric parameters. In this work, an SDOCT scanning protocol and motion correction algorithm were implemented to minimize the effects of patient motion during data acquisition. Procedures are described for correction of image data artifacts resulting from 3D refraction of SDOCT light in the cornea and from non-idealities of the scanning system geometry performed as a pre-requisite for accurate parameter extraction. Zernike polynomial 3D reconstruction and a recursive half searching algorithm (RHSA) were implemented to extract clinical keratometric parameters including anterior and posterior radii of curvature, central cornea optical power, central corneal thickness, and thickness maps of the cornea. Accuracy and repeatability of the extracted parameters obtained using a commercial 859nm SDOCT retinal imaging system with a corneal adapter were assessed using a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens as a phantom target. Extraction of these parameters was performed in vivo in 3 patients and compared to commercial Placido topography and Scheimpflug photography systems. The repeatability of SDOCT central corneal power measured in vivo was 0.18 Diopters, and the difference observed between the systems averaged 0.1 Diopters between SDOCT and Scheimpflug photography, and 0.6 Diopters between SDOCT and Placido topography.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4460) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: January 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 6, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 6, 2010
Published: April 14, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Mingtao Zhao, Anthony N Kuo, and Joseph A Izatt, "3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea," Opt. Express 18, 8923-8936 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 4 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 17, 6 (1995).
  4. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940 - 5951 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, “Dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(1), 7 – 24 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1-μm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532 – 8546 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438 – 11452 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Zawadzki, C. Leisser, R. Leitgeb, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Three-dimensional ophthalmic optical coherence tomography with a refraction correction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 8 (2003).
  12. V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express 10, 8 (2002).
  13. M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time quadrature projection complex conjugate resolved Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2426 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 6 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 18438 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 7 (2001).
  17. Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. J. Reiser, R. S. Chuck, and R. S. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1411 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, “Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3980 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Kerbage, H. Lim, W. Sun, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7117 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 4 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. N.Kuo, M. Zhao, and J. A. Izatt, “Corneal aberration measurement with three-dimensional refraction correction for high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” ARVO E-Abstract, 2 (2009).
  25. M. Tang, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal topography and power measurement with optical coherence tomography,” ARVO E-Abstract 5791(A93), 2 (2009).
  26. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. N. S. Institute, “Corneal topography systems - standard terminology, requirements,” ANSI 80, 23–2008 (2008).
  28. V. A. D. P. Sicam, M. Dubbelman, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, “Spherical aberration of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the human cornea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 544 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(3), 207 (1976). [CrossRef]
  30. V. A. D. P. Sicam, J. Coppens, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, “Corneal surface reconstruction algorithm that uses Zernike polynomial representation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 7 (2004).
  31. C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 9 (1991).
  32. W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of disperison effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res. 66(1), 25 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-mm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. T. O. Salmon and L. N. Thibos, “Videokeratoscope-line-of-sight misalignment and its effect on measurements of corneal and internal ocular aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 657 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited