OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 10 — Nov. 8, 2013

Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams

Godofredo Bautista, Mikko J. Huttunen, Juha M. Kontio, Janne Simonen, and Martti Kauranen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 19, pp. 21918-21923 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (965 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate third- (THG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of individual silver nanocones using tightly focused cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). Although THG is expected to be a weaker process than SHG, the yield for THG with radial polarization was higher than for SHG. We also found an excellent correlation between the imaging properties of THG and SHG, suggesting that both are governed by the same overall features of the individual nanocone. We also found that the transverse spatial resolution of THG with CVBs, particularly RP, exceeds that of SHG. Our work establishes the potential of THG microscopy with CVBs for structure-sensitive imaging of three-dimensional (3D) metal nano-objects.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 24, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 1, 2013
Published: September 10, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Godofredo Bautista, Mikko J. Huttunen, Juha M. Kontio, Janne Simonen, and Martti Kauranen, "Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams," Opt. Express 21, 21918-21923 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).
  2. J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1717–1721 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Background-free third harmonic imaging of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4093–4097 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3945–3948 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Huttunen, G. Bautista, M. Decker, S. Linden, M. Wegener, and M. Kauranen, “Nonlinear chiral imaging of subwavelength-sized twisted-cross gold nanodimers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 46–56 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 1–57 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. E. Wolf, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2011), Chap. 2.
  10. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express7(2), 77–87 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1374–1378 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 111114 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun3, 998 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1870–1872 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.28(11), 923–925 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 453–457 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. K. Yoshiki, R. Kanamaru, M. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1680–1682 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3207–3212 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Carrasco, R. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(10), 2134–2141 (2006). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Yang and Q. Zhan, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with tightly focused radial polarization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(12), 125103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. N. Olivier and E. Beaurepaire, “Third-harmonic generation microscopy with focus-engineered beams: a numerical study,” Opt. Express16(19), 14703–14715 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, “Nanoimprint fabrication of gold nanocones with approximately 10 nm tips for enhanced optical interactions,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1979–1981 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited