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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 9, Iss. 3 — Mar. 6, 2014

Nonlinear photoacoustic microscopy via a loss modulation technique: from detection to imaging

Yu-Hung Lai, Szu-Yu Lee, Chieh-Feng Chang, Yu-Hsiang Cheng, and Chi-Kuang Sun  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 525-536 (2014)

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In order to achieve high-resolution deep-tissue imaging, multi-photon fluorescence microscopy and photoacoustic tomography had been proposed in the past two decades. However, combining the advantages of these two imaging systems to achieve optical-spatial resolution with an ultrasonic-penetration depth is still a field with challenges. In this paper, we investigate the detection of the two-photon photoacoustic ultrasound, and first demonstrate background-free two-photon photoacoustic imaging in a phantom sample. To generate the background-free two-photon photoacoustic signals, we used a high-repetition rate femtosecond laser to induce narrowband excitation. Combining a loss modulation technique, we successfully created a beating on the light intensity, which not only provides pure sinusoidal modulation, but also ensures the spectrum sensitivity and frequency selectivity. By using the lock-in detection, the power dependency experiment validates our methodology to frequency-select the source of the nonlinearity. This ensures our capability of measuring the background-free two-photon photoacoustic waves by detecting the 2nd order beating signal directly. Furthermore, by mixing the nanoparticles and fluorescence dyes as contrast agents, the two-photon photoacoustic signal was found to be enhanced and detected. In the end, we demonstrate subsurface two-photon photoacoustic bio-imaging based on the optical scanning mechanism inside phantom samples.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.5120) Imaging systems : Photoacoustic imaging
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: October 16, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 9, 2013
Published: January 3, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Yu-Hung Lai, Szu-Yu Lee, Chieh-Feng Chang, Yu-Hsiang Cheng, and Chi-Kuang Sun, "Nonlinear photoacoustic microscopy via a loss modulation technique: from detection to imaging," Opt. Express 22, 525-536 (2014)

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