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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 13 — Dec. 2, 2009

Improved spatial resolution in fluorescence focal modulation microscopy

Wei Gong, Ke Si, Nanguang Chen, and Colin J. R. Sheppard  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 22, pp. 3508-3510 (2009)

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We show that the focal modulation microscopy (FMM), which combines a spatial phase modulator with confocal microscopy, results in an improvement in spatial resolution. This technique was introduced to increase imaging depth into tissue and rejection of background from a thick scattering object. A theory for image formation in FMM is presented, and the effects of detecting the in-phase modulated fluorescence signal are discussed. Compared with conventional confocal microscopy, the width of the point-spread function for the in-phase fluorescence signal is improved by 16.4%. When applied to saturable fluorescence, the half-width at half-maximum is improved by 33.6%, 50.0%, and 62.9%, at demodulation frequencies 2 ω , 4 ω , and 8 ω , respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

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Original Manuscript: June 30, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 1, 2009
Published: November 10, 2009

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Vol. 4, Iss. 13 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Wei Gong, Ke Si, Nanguang Chen, and Colin J. R. Sheppard, "Improved spatial resolution in fluorescence focal modulation microscopy," Opt. Lett. 34, 3508-3510 (2009)

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