In the paraxial form of the Debye integral for focusing, higher order defocus terms are ignored, which can result in errors in dealing with aberrations, even for low numerical aperture. These errors can be avoided by using a different integration variable. The aberrations of a glass slab, such as a coverslip, are expanded in terms of the new variable, and expressed in terms of Zernike polynomials to assist with aberration balancing. Tube length error is also discussed.
© 2013 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: January 21, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 28, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 28, 2013
Published: March 21, 2013
Vol. 8, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics
Colin J. R. Sheppard, "Limitations of the paraxial Debye approximation," Opt. Lett. 38, 1074-1076 (2013)