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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

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  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 1 — Jan. 19, 2007
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High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography

H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. W. Lee, Y. Chen, Teresa C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 26, pp. 12902-12908 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.012902


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Abstract

We present the first demonstration of human retinal imaging in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in the 800-nm range. With 460-µW incident power on the eye, the sensitivity is 91 dB at maximum and >85 dB over 2-mm depth range. The axial resolution is 13 µm in air. We acquired images of retina at 43,200 depth profiles per second and a continuous acquisition speed of 84 frames/s (512 A-lines per frame) could be maintained over more than 2 seconds.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a unique means to obtain depth-resolved, high-resolution images of retina in vivo [1–6

1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. High acquisition speed is valued in most imaging applications, but particularly in ophthalmology it minimizes artifacts that arise from eye movements. 3-D volumetric scanning within a time acceptable in a clinical setting may also permit temporally resolving fast physiological processes en masse during visual perception.

Spectral-domain or frequency-domain OCT (SD/FD-OCT) has become the preferred method for retinal imaging owing to its high imaging speed [5

5. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [7–10

7. T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and the availability of broadband sources permitting ultrahigh resolution retinal imaging [11

11. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the state-of-the-art spectrometers are hampering further improvements 1) with limited detection efficiency (~25%) and 2) the obtainable spectral resolution causes approximately a 6-dB sensitivity drop over a 1-mm depth range [6

6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Furthermore, rapid scanning of the probe beam in SD-OCT has the adverse effect of fringe washout, which causes SNR to decrease [13

13. S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Pulsed-source and swept-source spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with reduced motion artifacts,” Opt. Express 12, 5614–5624 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. J. W. You, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Pulsed illumination spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for human retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 6739–6748 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Alternately optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), or swept-source OCT, uses a wavelength-tuned laser [15

15. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The method derives the spectrally resolved interference not from a spectrometer, but rather from rapidly sweeping the wavelength of a laser. Simpler detection in OFDI, i.e. use of a single-point photodiode instead of a spectrometer, enables higher detection efficiency, which could improve sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the typical depth range of OFDI [15

15. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] could be longer than that of spectrometer-based SD-OCT systems [17

17. S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11, 3598–3604 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Improved ranging depth can provide an important benefit in a clinical setting, where patient motion poses a challenge in keeping all retinal structures of interest within the ranging depth, such as increased cupping in optic nerve head (ONH) which is an important diagnostic signature of glaucomatous eyes. OFDI facilitates fast surveillance, which is a vital feature in clinically viable, volumetric retinal imaging. OFDI technique has been applied successfully in ophthalmic imaging to visualize anterior [18

18. Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652–10664 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and posterior segments [19

19. E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] at 1300 and 1050 nm, respectively. Recently we have demonstrated for the first time high-speed OFDI in the 800-nm range [20

20. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with a depth range of ~2 mm, much better compared to SD/FD-OCT systems. However, the axial resolution realized with OFDI, both at 800 [20

20. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or 1050 nm [19

19. E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is not so impressive; ~14 µm in air, a factor of 3.5 worse than that with SD/FD-OCT systems [11

11. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we demonstrate 800-nm OFDI imaging of human retina in vivo, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. A rapidly wavelength-tuned laser in the range of 815–870 nm was a linear cavity design [19

19. E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. An eye of healthy volunteer was imaged with an A-line rate of 43.2 kHz. An axial resolution of 13–13.5 µm in air, a peak sensitivity of 91 dB and better than 85-dB sensitivities were achieved over a 2-mm depth range with a sample arm power of 460 µW.

2. Method

Fig. 1. Schematic of the wavelength-swept laser. TF: tunable filter, SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier, FLM: fiber loop mirror, PC: Polarization controller. The focal length f1 and f2 is 75 and 40 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2. (a). Wavelength-swept laser output characteristics. Oscilloscope trace shows 43.2-kHz sweep rate. (b). Instantaneous optical power in the reference arm.

The 800-nm OFDI system has been described previously in detail [20

20. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this work, we have modified the system for retinal imaging (Fig. 3). The average output power at a SOA injection current of 140 mA was 7 mW. The beam from the laser source is attenuated so that the interferometer is illuminated with 1.3 mW. The reference arm (70%) has a translational delay and a neutral-density (ND) filter that attenuates the reference beam power further. A fraction of laser beam (30%) is guided to a slit-lamp in the sample arm. Data was acquired with a high-speed digitizer (National Instruments, PCI-5122) at a sampling rate of 50 Ms/second (14-bit resolution). During each wavelength sweep, 1024 data points were sampled over 20.5 µs (duty cycle of 88%). Post-processing of the acquired data involves a series of steps, details of which were described previously [5

5. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For the apodization step, we used a bell-shaped window function that falls off sinusoidally over 200 data points at both ends.

Fig. 3. Experimental configuration of the optical frequency domain imaging system.

Fig. 4. (a). Sensitivity as a function of depth. (b). Axial resolution in air as a function of depth. Dashed line is the theoretical axial resolution calculated from the raw laser spectrum.

3. Results

The sample arm of the interferometer was connected to a slit lamp based human interface that was described in detail previously [5

5. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. An undilated eye of a healthy volunteer was illuminated with 460 µW, in compliance with ANSI standards for pulsed illumination [23

23. ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

]. Two regions of interest were imaged, one centered at the fovea (Fig. 5) and the second visualizing both the ONH and the fovea (Fig. 6). The still images of Figs. 5 and 6 consisted of 1024 A-lines. Figure 3 is an image of a macular region that is cropped to 950×250 pixels (6.4 mm×1.4 mm in tissue). The visualized features correlate well with the known retinal layers. Figure 6 is a representative tomogram of an area that includes the optics nerve head and fovea (6.4 mm×1.9 mm in tissue).

Fig. 5. Macular region, 6.4 mm wide×1.4 mm deep (in tissue). Scale bar, 500 µm. RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer. IPL: inner plexiform layer. INL: inner nuclear layer. OPL: outer plexiform layer. ONL: outer nuclear layer. IPRL: inner photoreceptor layer. RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. C: choroids. [Media 1, Media 3]

Fig. 6. Area that includes optic disk and fovea, 6.4 mm wide×1.9 mm deep (in tissue). Scale bar, 500 µm. Inset; en face image with a red line whose cross section is shown in the left, 6.4 mm×3.5 mm. [Media 2, Media 4]

An en face view (Fig. 6, inset) is constructed by integrating the scanned 3-D volume over the axial dimension and shows the exact location of the OCT scan on the en face reconstruction.

4. Conclusion

We have described imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source OCT. The peak sensitivity is 91 dB at an A-line rate of 43,200 per second and with an optical power of 460 µW in the sample arm. The axial resolution in air is 13–13.5 µm with a ranging depth of 2 mm. A volumetric scan of 180 individual frames covering a 21°×12° (6.1×3.5 mm2) field-of-view was acquired in 2.13 sec. This represent the fastest, wide field-of-view, volumetric retinal OCT imaging with a superior ranging depth over SD/FD-OCT technology, however at the cost of a 3.5 fold reduction in axial resolution [11

11. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Further speed increases are not limited by the laser sweep repetition rate, but by the sensitivity penalty associated with increased A-line rate. However, the developments in ophthalmic instrumentation, such as wavefront correction with adaptive optics [24–27

24. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997). [CrossRef]

] could provide the extra sensitivity permitting a further speed increase. Future system improvements to recover a portion of the 12 dB difference between shot-noise limited and experimentally achieved sensitivity could also be used to increase the imaging speed.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by research grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01-RR019768 R01-EY014975) and the Department of Defense (F4 9620-01-1-0014).

References and links

1.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed Opt 9, 47–74 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2067–2069 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2183–2189 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Pulsed-source and swept-source spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with reduced motion artifacts,” Opt. Express 12, 5614–5624 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. W. You, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Pulsed illumination spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for human retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 6739–6748 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11, 3598–3604 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652–10664 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1981–1983 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.7, 1217–1224 (1988). [CrossRef]

23.

ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

24.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997). [CrossRef]

25.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 405–412 (2002). [PubMed]

26.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2142–2144 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 4380–4394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmology
(330.4460) Vision, color, and visual optics : Ophthalmic optics and devices

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: August 29, 2006
Revised Manuscript: December 4, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 5, 2006
Published: December 25, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
H. Lim, Teresa C. Chen, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. W. Lee, and Y. Chen, "High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 12902-12908 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-12902


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References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed Opt 9, 47–74 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2067–2069 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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