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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

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  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 11 — Nov. 26, 2007
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Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye

Linda Lundström, Silvestre Manzanera, Pedro M. Prieto, Diego B. Ayala, Nicolas Gorceix, Jörgen Gustafsson, Peter Unsbo, and Pablo Artal  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 20, pp. 12654-12661 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.012654


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Abstract

Retinal sampling poses a fundamental limit to resolution acuity in the periphery. However, reduced image quality from optical aberrations may also influence peripheral resolution. In this study, we investigate the impact of different degrees of optical correction on acuity in the periphery. We used an adaptive optics system to measure and modify the off-axis aberrations of the right eye of six normal subjects at 20° eccentricity. The system consists of a Hartmann-Shack sensor, a deformable mirror, and a channel for visual testing. Four different optical corrections were tested, ranging from foveal sphero-cylindrical correction to full correction of eccentric low- and high-order monochromatic aberrations. High-contrast visual acuity was measured in green light using a forced choice procedure with Landolt C’s, viewed via the deformable mirror through a 4.8-mm artificial pupil. The Zernike terms mainly induced by eccentricity were defocus and with- and against-the-rule astigmatism and each correction condition was successfully implemented. On average, resolution decimal visual acuity improved from 0.057 to 0.061 as the total root-mean-square wavefront error changed from 1.01 μm to 0.05 μm. However, this small tendency of improvement in visual acuity with correction was not significant. The results suggest that for our experimental conditions and subjects, the resolution acuity in the periphery cannot be improved with optical correction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the peripheral field of view the ability of the human eye to discriminate small objects decreases rapidly with the angle of eccentricity. This reduction can be due to both optical and neural limitations: the eccentric angle induces optical aberrations, which lower the contrast of the image on the retina; and the density of cones and ganglion cells decline with eccentricity, resulting in sparse sampling of the image. Foveal vision is generally limited by the on-axis optical properties of the eye and the foveal sampling density poses no restrictions under normal viewing conditions. In peripheral vision, however, the limited neural function can lead to situations where, e.g., a grating is detected even though its orientation cannot be identified, i.e. the threshold of resolution acuity is worse than the threshold of detection acuity. This is a result of the aliasing phenomena, which means that a coarse neural sampling density misinterprets spatial frequencies above the Nyquist criterion as lower, distorted frequencies [1–3

1. L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Optical errors will reduce the contrast of the high-spatial frequencies present in the image on the retina. The aliasing effect will thereby decline and the peripheral resolution acuity may eventually become limited by the contrast of the retinal image. It is well known that large oblique angles in an optical system induce aberrations, mainly field curvature and oblique astigmatism, which result in an effective eccentric refractive error [4

4. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Peripheral aberrations can, e.g., affect the emmetropization process [6

6. A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002). [CrossRef]

], the results of perimetry, and the remaining vision for people with central visual field loss [7

7. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).

]. A number of studies have therefore investigated the influence of optical correction on peripheral vision. These studies found no difference in peripheral resolution acuity when the eye was uncorrected compared to when refractive correction was used [8–11

8. M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, it should be noted that the difference between foveal and eccentric refractive correction varies for individual subjects and that retinoscopy, which was used to determine the refractive error, has been found to be difficult to use off-axis [12

12. D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A few studies have investigated how peripheral resolution acuity change with optical defocus [11

11. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]

,14

14. R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982). [PubMed]

]. Wang et al. [11

11. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]

] measured detection and resolution acuity with sinusoidal gratings and letter discrimination acuity with tumbling-E’s in 20° eccentricity on three subjects. They found that grating detection varied with spherical defocus whereas resolution of both gratings and tumbling-E’s was robust to defocus and generally unaffected by spherical defocus of ±3 diopters (D). Similar experiments were performed by Anderson [14

14. R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; grating resolution was robust to about 2 D of defocus in 30° eccentricity on one subject. These results are not in agreement with some of the measurements by Rovamo et al. [15

15. J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982). [PubMed]

], who found that grating resolution varied with the power of a cylinder lens on one subject in 25° eccentricity. This discrepancy might be explained by the fact that there are large individual variations in the amount of peripheral optical errors. For example, in 30° eccentricity the astigmatism in a foveally emmetropic population is between 2.5 and 5 D [16

16. J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Methods

The principle and basic components of the optical setup are shown in Fig. 1. The foveal fixation target was a cross illuminated by a green diode. It was placed horizontally 20° to the right of the measurement axis with the help of a mirror. A lens in front of the fixation target was adjusted to place the cross in the far-point of the eye as a target to keep steady foveal accommodation. The off-axis wavefront was measured with infrared light (780 nm) using a Hartmann-Shack sensor [19

19. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and reconstructed with Zernike polynomials up to the seventh radial order. A Xinetics deformable mirror with 97 piezoelectric actuators was used in closed-loop with the wavefront sensor to achieve different optical corrections. The resolution acuity was evaluated with specially developed software, based on the standard Cambridge Research System libraries, and used rotating Landolt C’s in green light. These stimuli were presented on a calibrated monitor that was placed at a distance of approximately 3 m from the setup. The subject viewed the monitor via the deformable mirror, with the head stabilized by a bite bar.

In oblique angles the pupil will appear elliptical in shape, which implies that the Zernike coefficients, defined over a circular pupil, do not directly describe the true root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error [20

20. L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569–577 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. To avoid this difficulty, the wavefront measurements and the optical corrections were performed over an artificial circular pupil of 5 mm in diameter centered on the real elliptical pupil. Accordingly, the visual evaluation was also performed with an artificial pupil; the monitor was viewed through an aperture that corresponded to a circle of 4.8 mm in diameter in the pupil plane. The following two sections describe the procedure of the optical correction and the visual evaluation.

2.1 Optical measurements and corrections

Fig. 1. Main components of the optical setup. The entrance pupil of the eye is conjugated to the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor via telescopes. For the sake of clarity, lenses and some mirrors have been excluded and the setup is not drawn to scale.

After these preliminary procedures, the adaptive optics system was switched on to achieve the desired correction conditions with the eye still fixating at 20° eccentricity:

  1. Foveal sphero-cylindrical correction: Since the Badal system setting corrects for the foveal sphere, the adaptive optics system was used to correct only for the foveal cylinder. The rest of the Zernike coefficients were set to remain constant.
  2. Eccentric defocus correction: The adaptive optics system was set to correct for foveal astigmatism, as in the previous case, but now the defocus coefficient was also modified in order to compensate the eccentric defocus. The other coefficients were set to remain constant.
  3. Eccentric sphero-cylindrical correction: The adaptive optics system was set to correct the eccentric defocus and astigmatism without modifying the other Zernike coefficients.
  4. Full eccentric aberration correction: All the Zernike coefficients were considered for correction by the adaptive optics system.

The settings of the deformable mirror were then saved and the visual function was evaluated with the mirror set to static correction for the cases A to D. For each subject the order of the corrections was random and the subject was not informed.

2.2 Visual function evaluation procedure

The peripheral resolution threshold for high-contrast Landolt C’s was measured for each correction condition. The stimuli were green (λpeak = 532 nm with a half-width of 70 nm, luminance 84 cd/m2) Landolt C’s displayed by the monitor on a black background. The gap of the C’s occurred in four oblique angles (45°, 135°, 225°, and 315°) to have equal visibility of the stimuli in spite of the horizontal-vertical astigmatism induced by the horizontal angle. The contrast was higher than 99 %.

freq.ofseeing=100%25%1+e(tt0)Δt+25%.

Here t denotes the object size (i.e. gap-width) in arc minutes and the guessing rate is 25 %. From this curve the threshold value was defined as the 62.5 % frequency of seeing level. One evaluation session took around three minutes and was repeated three times for each correction condition. The subject was allowed to rest from the bite bar between the sessions. The combined time-span for each correction condition, including the adaptive optics loop and the series of three psychophysical sessions, was 45 minutes approximately. The whole experimental session lasted around four hours per subject.

3. Results

Fig. 2. Remaining peripheral aberrations for each correction level: A - Foveal sphero-cylindrical correction, B - Eccentric defocus correction, C - Eccentric sphero-cylindrical correction, D - Full eccentric aberration correction. The columns show the average defocus, C(2,0), oblique astigmatism, C(2,-2), horizontal/vertical astigmatism, C(2,2), and the root-mean-square error of high-order wavefront aberrations, RMSHOA. The colored dots are the values for each individual subject. All values are given in μm over a circular pupil of 4.8 mm in diameter (λ = 532 nm).

The peripheral resolution acuity showed no statistically significant improvement with the different optical corrections. However, a small tendency to better resolution acuity with optical correction can be seen in the four cases: foveal sphero-cylindrical correction gave a decimal visual acuity of 0.057 averaged over the six subjects; eccentric defocus correction gave 0.058; eccentric sphero-cylindrical correction 0.059; and full eccentric correction 0.061. The results of the individual subjects are plotted for the four correction levels in Fig. 4. Although there is a slight tendency to better acuity with subsequent correction levels, no subject showed acuity improvements larger than 0.01 between foveal and full eccentric aberration correction and subject AM showed a decrease in acuity for full correction.

Fig. 3. Wavefront map and associated PSF for subject LL for each correction level (A-D, same as in Fig. 2). The brightness of the PSFs has been increased.
Fig. 4. Peripheral resolution threshold values in decimal visual acuity for the six subjects (SM, NG, GP, LL, EV, and AM) with the same optical corrections (A-D) as in Fig. 2. The bars are the average of three visual evaluation measurements, which are also shown individually by the black dots.

No correlation between peripheral resolution acuity and the remaining total wavefront RMS error was found (see Fig. 5). The PSF and the modulation transfer function (MTF) were calculated from the wavefront measurement, but also here no significant correlation was found neither between resolution and the Strehl ratio (normalized peak value of the PSF), nor between resolution and the volume under the two-dimensional MTF curve, which was tested with four different cut-off frequencies: 60, 30, 10, or 3 cycles/degree, respectively.

4. Discussion

The adaptive optics system worked satisfactorily and the remaining aberration data shown in Fig. 2 is in agreement with earlier studies [6

6. A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002). [CrossRef]

,24

24. D. A. Atchison, “Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5–27 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (note that our study included more myopes, who generally show a hyperopic defocus shift in the periphery, than emmetropes, who often have a myopic shift). However, it has to be pointed out that the eye is a living system and the ocular aberrations during the visual testing might be somewhat larger than those presented in Fig. 2, which correspond to the endpoint of the adaptive optics loop. Three factors can be mentioned. First, the correction of defocus relied on the adjustment of the Badal defocus step; a small error, e.g. if the subject accommodated while performing the adjustment, would add to the wavefront error in all four correction cases. Second, many subjects reported difficulties with keeping a stable fixation of the foveal target at the same time as they concentrated on the peripheral stimulus, which might have induced involuntary eye movements and small accommodation changes. The third potential factor is the temporal variability of the ocular aberrations [25

25. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001). [CrossRef]

], both from fluctuations of the ocular media and from head and body movements resulting in a decentration of the natural pupil relative to the measurement axis. The data presented in Fig. 2 correspond to the wavefront aberrations at the end of the closed loop session, i.e. during optimal correction. To get an estimate of the potential variations in the aberrations during the visual testing, the wavefront was measured at the end of each visual evaluation session. The full eccentric aberration correction was obviously the most clearly affected by this effect: on average the total RMS changed from 0.05 μm directly after the closed loop to 0.25 μm after the psychophysical session (0.16 μm excluding defocus).

We could not find significant differences between the four degrees of correction nor any significant correlation between the remaining optical errors and the peripheral resolution threshold. That is, for these six subjects the total eccentric RMS wavefront error could on average be as high as 1.0 μm for a 4.8 mm pupil without any significant reduction in resolution acuity for high-contrast, inverted Landolt C’s, which suggests a neural limitation. However, a slight trend of improvement can be seen and subject LL, who experienced the largest resolution improvements, could subjectively tell the difference between a better (eccentric sphero-cylindrical and full eccentric aberration correction) and a worse correction (foveal sphero-cylindrical and eccentric defocus correction) even when she did not know which correction was used. Additionally, the test with non-inverted black Landolt C’s on a green background suggests that larger improvements can be found with other kinds of stimuli, e.g., with lower contrast levels or polychromatic light. The results might also be different on other subject groups, for other visual tasks, or in other eccentric viewing angles.

Fig. 5. Mean peripheral resolution threshold values plotted against the aberration root-mean-square (including defocus and astigmatism). The different markers denote the four optical corrections presented in Fig. 2 (A-D). The error bars are the standard deviation of the three visual testing runs.

5. Conclusion

To our knowledge this paper presents the first investigation on the peripheral resolution acuity in relation to the low- and high-order eccentric optical aberrations of the eye. On average the remaining RMS error was changed from 1.01 μm to 0.05 μm and a small, but not significant, improvement in resolution threshold was found. These results suggest that correction of the peripheral optics of the eye has a limited impact on the eccentric resolution acuity in young and healthy subjects for the experimental conditions of this study. However, the results do not rule out the possibility of improvements for other visual tasks, contrasts, stimuli, or subjects.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (grants FIS2004-2153 and CIT-020500-2005-031).

References

1.

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).

8.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]

12.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982). [PubMed]

16.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 26, 746–748 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634–638 (2002).

19.

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569–577 (2007). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 400–409 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

D. A. Atchison, “Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5–27 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001). [CrossRef]

26.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(330.1070) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - acuity
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6130) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial resolution
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

ToC Category:
Vision, color, and visual optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2007
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 11, 2007
Published: September 18, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Linda Lundström, Silvestre Manzanera, Pedro M. Prieto, Diego B. Ayala, Nicolas Gorceix, Jörgen Gustafsson, Peter Unsbo, and Pablo Artal, "Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye," Opt. Express 15, 12654-12661 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-12654


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References

  1. L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201-212 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, "Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363-2373 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. "Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction," accepted for publication in Optom. Vision Sci. (2007).
  8. M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997). [PubMed]
  12. D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Anderson, "The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351-353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982). [PubMed]
  16. J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).
  19. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000). [CrossRef]
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