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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 1 — Jan. 29, 2008
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Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography

Ki Hean Kim, B. Hyle Park, Gopi N. Maguluri, Tom W. Lee, Fran J. Rogomentich, Mirela G. Bancu, Brett E. Bouma, Johannes F. de Boer, and Jonathan J. Bernstein  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 26, pp. 18130-18140 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.018130


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Abstract

A two-axis scanning catheter was developed for 3D endoscopic imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The catheter incorporates a micro-mirror scanner implemented with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology: the micro-mirror is mounted on a two-axis gimbal comprised of folded flexure hinges and is actuated by magnetic field. The scanner can run either statically in both axes or at the resonant frequency (>=350Hz) for the fast axis. The assembled catheter has an outer diameter of 2.8 mm and a rigid part of 12 mm in length. Its scanning range is ±20° in optical angle in both axes with low voltages (1~3V), resulting in a scannable length of approximately 1 mm at the surface in both axes, even with the small catheter size. The catheter was incorporated with a multi-functional SD-OCT system for 3D endoscopic imaging. Both intensity and polarization-sensitive images could be acquired simultaneously at 18.5K axial scans/s. In vivo 3D images of human fingertips and oral cavity tissue are presented as a demonstration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique capable of crosssectional imaging of biological tissues based on light scattering [1

1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Scattered light is resolved in depth using low coherence interferometry. With its high sensitivity, high resolution, and non-invasiveness, OCT has become a promising technique for in vivo clinical diagnosis in ophthalmology [2

2. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and dermatology [5

5. J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review,” Skin Research and Technology 7, 1–9 (2001), <Go to ISI>://000166541600001. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123, 458–463 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Development of scanning catheters has enabled endoscopic OCT imaging of internal organs and extended the OCT study field further [9

9. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Endoscopic OCT imaging has demonstrated its ability to resolve layered tissue structures, and to differentiate normal from certain pathologic conditions within the esophagus [11

11. M. V. J. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Unq-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474–479 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32, 921–930 (2000). [CrossRef]

], coronary artery [17

17. H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. G. J. Tearney, I. K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and other internal organs such as the oral cavity [20

20. F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren Jr, and D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], larynx [21

21. A. V. Shakhov, A. B. Terentjeva, V. A. Kamensky, L. B. Snopova, V. M. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, and A. M. Sergeev, “Optical coherence tomography monitoring for laser surgery of laryngeal carcinoma,” J. Surg. Oncol. 77, 253–258 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23

23. A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 115, 277–284 (2006). [PubMed]

], and bladder [24

24. E. V. Zagaynova, O. S. Streltsova, N. D. Gladkova, L. B. Snopova, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, and A. N. Morozov, “In vivo optical coherence tomography feasibility for bladder disease,” J. Urol. 167, 1492–1496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this work, we present a fully-assembled two-axis scanning catheter based on a magnetically-actuated MEMS micro-mirror scanner. This MEMS scanner can be actuated either statically or at its resonant frequency (>=350Hz). Therefore, high-speed endoscopic OCT imaging is possible with this catheter. It has a scanning range of ±20° in optical angle in both axes with low driving voltages (1~3 V). The assembled catheter measured 2.8 mm in outer diameter with a rigid body length of 12 mm. The design of the MEMS scanner, optical and mechanical design of the catheter, and in vivo 3D images of fingertips and oral cavity tissue taken with a multi-functional SD-OCT system are presented.

Fig. 1. The MEMS mirror scanner (a) and a SEM picture of a supporting folded flexure (b). A micro-mirror is supported by a 2-axis gimbal structure composed of folded flexure hinges and can deflect in two orthogonal axes: inner and outer axis depicted in the picture.

2. Catheter design and construction

2.1 MEMS mirror scanner

A photograph of the MEMS mirror scanner is shown in Fig. 1(a). A rectangular-shaped micro-mirror is mounted on a two-axis gimbal platform with folded flexure hinges. The micro-mirror can rotate in two axes: an inner axis along a pair of inner flexures and an orthogonal outer axis along the outer flexure pair. Dimensions of the mirror are 0.6 mm x 0.8 mm in width and height, respectively, and those of the whole unit are 2.4 mm x 2.9 mm. A scanning electron micrograph (SEM) picture of the folded flexure is shown in Fig. 1(b). Flexures are 6 microns wide and 50 microns deep, giving good out-of-plane stiffness. For magnetic actuation, a thin permanent magnet is glued to the back of the mirror and wirewound coils are placed in the catheter body for each axis (refer to the section of catheter design for details).

A simple MEMS process (Fig. 2), composed of 2 photo-steps, was used to make the mirror scanner. The starting material was an SOI (Silicon On Insulator) wafer with a 50 µm thick SOI layer on a 350 µm thick handle wafer, with a 1 µm thick oxide layer in between (Fig. 2(a)). The mirrors and gimbals, including folded flexures, were formed by ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) etching in an STS reactor (STS plc, Newport, UK) (Fig. 2(b)). Following this step, the handle side was similarly patterned by ICP etching to free them (Fig. 2(c)). The exposed oxide was etched using buffered HF (BHF) (Fig. 2(d)). At this point, the mirrors were held in the wafer by thin tabs, which were broken to remove them from the wafer. Cr/Au was then sputtered on the mirror side of the chip (Fig. 2(d)). Thin magnet layers, which were composed of small NdFeB magnets, measuring 0.6 mm x 0.8 mm x 0.18 mm were glued to the backs of the mirrors manually (Fig. 2(e)). These small magnets were made by grinding magnet blanks to the desired thickness, dicing to the desired dimensions and then magnetizing. Reducing the mass of the mirror and magnet assembly was important to increase shock and vibration resistance and to limit mechanical resonance (Q factor). On the other hand, thicker magnet layers gave higher actuation torque for a given driving current, leading to a trade-off between actuation force and shock resistance. The rigidity of the folded flexures was set to balance between large scanning angles and mechanical stability. Resonant frequencies for the inner and outer axes were approximately 450 Hz and 350 Hz, respectively.

Fig. 2. MEMS scanner fabrication process

2.2 Catheter design

Figure 3 shows a cross-sectional schematic and corresponding photograph of the assembled catheter. In the schematic, the light path is shown in red. Light is delivered via a single mode optical fiber (Corning SMF-28, core diameter: 8.2 µm) from the left. The divergent beam from the fiber is focused by a GRIN lens (NSG America #ILH-0.70, 1.1 mm length, 0.51 mm focal length) and reflected down toward a MEMS mirror scanner with a fold mirror. The faces of the GRIN lens are angle-polished to avoid back reflection. The MEMS mirror reflects the beam up toward a specimen through a plano-convex cylindrical glass window. The glass window has anti-reflection (AR) coating on its surfaces. The beam focus is placed in the specimen, which is in contact with the catheter. The MEMS scanner redirects the beam in two orthogonal axes. Scattered light from the tissue returns back through the same optical path and is collected by the optical fiber. This configuration allows scanning of the beam forward and imaging close to the tip of the catheter. The glass window protects the MEMS scanner and keeps the cylindrical catheter shape. The scanning range is set to exclude normal incidence on the glass window in order to avoid strong back-reflections. The optical design was optimized via ZEMAX simulation (Zemax development corp., Bellevue, WA) to maintain image resolution throughout the 3D imaging region. The image resolution is approximately 25 microns at the Gaussian beam waist in transverse direction, and its Rayleigh range is approximately 1.5 mm in air (3 mm in depth of focus).

The catheter body was machined of titanium, since it is a strong, non-magnetic material. The rigid housing of the catheter is 2.8 mm in outer diameter with a length of 12 mm. A coil pair was placed under the mirror for magnetic actuation in the inner axis and a single coil was placed at the distal tip of the catheter for the actuation in the outer axis. Although very fine coils could be fabricated by lithography and electroplating, we decided to use wire-wound coils since they were commercially available at low costs. Coils were wound from a #50 AWG wire on temporary winding mandrels. The outer axis coils averaged approximately 390 turns and 35-40 ohms, whereas the smaller inner axis coil pairs averaged approximately 18 ohms. The inner axis coil pairs were mounted on titanium coil supports with small nubs to center the coils. These coil supports were glued to the main body using epoxy. The coils were painted with enamel (Testors Flat Black) to reduce stray light reflections from the body and its coupling to the optical fiber. For strain relief, the fine coil wires were brought out to a small flex circuit board with solder pads. Four #34 AWG multi-strand wires were used for external connection. Two leads were used for each axis of actuation.

As the final assembly step, a single mode optical fiber was attached to the catheter. The fiber was angle cleaved to avoid back-reflection from its tip and the fiber was aligned with the catheter body by using a precision 3D translator. The space between the fiber tip and the GRIN lens in the catheter was filled with ultraviolet (UV) curing epoxy (Norland 68) for index matching and gluing. It was important to set the distance between the fiber tip and the grin lens correctly as this distance determined the depth location of the beam focus in the sample. This distance was adjusted by imaging a sample of 5 µm diameter polystyrene microspheres embedded in agar gel with a pre-existing TD-OCT system such that the beam maintained focus throughout the entire imaging depth. Once this distance was set, the fiber was fixed in place by curing the epoxy with a UV gun.

Fig. 3. Catheter schematic (a) and photograph (b). Light path is drawn in red in the schematic and light is redirected by the MEMS scanner. The catheter photograph was taken with a ruler underneath with millimeter unit. The optical fiber is glued to the catheter body with UV curing epoxy. The MEMS scanner appears in the photograph refracted by the plano-convex cylindrical window.

2.3 Multi-functional SD-OCT system

The 2-axis MEMS scanning catheter was incorporated with a multi-functional SD-OCT system, capable of simultaneous intensity, polarization-sensitive (PS), and phase-resolved optical Doppler imaging [50

50. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 um,” Opt. Express 13, 3931–3944 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) enables depth-resolved measurement of light-polarization state changing properties of tissue, and has been used for applications including correlating burn depth with a decrease in birefringence [6

6. B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], measuring the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and monitoring the onset and progression of caries lesions by analyzing depth dependent changes in the polarization state of detected light. PS-OCT imaging is useful for endoscopic imaging of the vocal folds by providing additional contrast to resolve their layered structures [23

23. A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 115, 277–284 (2006). [PubMed]

, 51

51. J. A. Burns, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the mucosa of the human vocal fold with optical coherence tomography” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 114, 671–676 (2005). [PubMed]

]. It may provide rheological information of the vocal folds based on the level of birefringence. Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography enables depth-resolved imaging of flow by observing differences in phase of a spectral interferogram between successive depth scans. A detailed description of the system can be found in the literature [50

50. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 um,” Opt. Express 13, 3931–3944 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The system is based on a fiber-based interferometer with a broadband light source centered at 1.3 µm with a bandwidth of 68 nm at full width half maximum (FWHM). This bandwidth gives the coherence length of 11.27 microns in air. The 2-axis scanning catheter in the sample arm is covered with a heat-shrink plastic sheath (FEP, Zeus Inc, Orangeburg, SC) and an epoxy glue is applied to its open end for sealing. Control signals for the MEMS scanner are generated by an acquisition computer and amplified by a power amplifier (PA74, Apex Microtech, Tucson, AZ) to provide enough electrical current (up to 100 mA) for driving the scanner. The acquisition speed is 18,500 axial scans per second.

Fig. 4. Scanning range of the MEMS scanner. The lines are linear fits of measurement points.

3. Results

The scanning range of the MEMS scanner was measured at an intermediate assembly step, before the fold mirror and plano-convex cylindrical window were attached. A laser pointer was used to illuminate the scanner, and the spot positions vs. driving voltages were recorded using a paper screen with 1 mm spaced lines. Figure 4 shows optical angles of the MEMS scanner in both inner and outer axes vs. driving voltages. These angles scaled nearly linearly with the driving voltages in both axes and the angles higher than ±30° were typically achieved with a voltage level of ±1.2 V and ±4 V for the inner and outer axis respectively. The electrical currents were calculated to be 50 mA and 100 mA for the inner and outer axis respectively by using their resistance values. The outer axis coil was relatively inefficient at applying torque compared to the inner axis coils due to a larger gap between the coil and the magnet on the back of the mirror. In the assembled catheter, the optical window refracted the beam, resulting in a slight nonlinearity in the deflection angle with the driving voltage due to thickness variations of the window. At large scan angles spurious vibrations at the mirror resonant frequency were observed. To avoid this vibration, the scan angle was reduced to approximately ±20° optical angle for the inner axis and less than ±30° optical angle for the outer axis. Image resolution was measured by imaging microspheres (5 microns in diameter) immobilized in agar. Full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) in lateral direction measured approximately 23 µm on average.

In vivo 3D endoscopic imaging of tissues was performed by using the 2-axis scanning catheters and the multifunctional SD-OCT system. Consecutive cross-sectional images were acquired by using either the inner axis or the outer axis as the fast scanning axis and the other axis as the slow scanning axis. The scanning in the fast axis was driven by a sinusoidal waveform (18.5 Hz) to make sure that the scanner followed the driving waveform without distortion. The scanning in the slow axis was driven by a linear triangular waveform (0.09Hz). Each cross-sectional image was taken during a full cycle of the sinusoidal waveform in the fast axis and was composed of 1024 axial scans. The cross-sectional image was symmetric with the first half in the forward scanning direction and the second half in the opposite (backward) direction. 100 consecutive cross-sectional images were acquired by scanning in the slow axis. A post image processing was performed in Matlab (Mathworks, MA) to generate images and its steps are following: (1) A standard SD-OCT image processing algorithm was applied first to obtain both intensity and PS images. (2) Each crosssectional image, which contained both forward and backward images, was split into two images and incoherently averaged to reduce speckle noise. (3) The cross-sectional images were rescaled linearly in angle by interpolation of the sinusoidal driving waveform in the fast axis. The resulting images are in polar coordinates. (4) The images in polar coordinates were converted into Cartesian coordinates by a secondary interpolation step.

Fig. 5. In vivo finger tip images: cross-sectional images in the inner axis (a) and outer axis (b) respectively, and 3D reconstructed images (c, d) based on the consecutive cross-sectional images in (a) and (b) respectively.

First, human fingertips were imaged in vivo and their 3D images are presented in Fig. 5. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) are cross-sectional images. In Fig. 5(a), the cross-sectional images were acquired by using the inner axis of the scanner as the fast axis with a driving voltage of ± 0.8V. The boundary of the cross-sectional images reflects the radial geometry and the large angle (±20°) of the scan. Its scanning range was approximately 1 mm in length on the surface. The slow (outer) axis was driven with ±1V and its scanning range was 0.55 mm in length on the surface. 100 consecutive cross-sectional images were acquired. The total acquisition time was 5.4 seconds. In Fig. 5(b), the fast and slow scanning axes were switched from the one in Fig 5(a): the outer axis was used as the fast scanning axis and the inner axis as the slow axis. In this configuration, the scanning range of approximately 1.5 mm was achieved in the fast axis (outer) and 1 mm was for the slow (inner) axis. The driving voltage was ±2.8 V and ±0.8 V for the outer and inner axis respectively. These intensity images were displayed with an inverse gray-scale such that black indicates the highest intensity and white the lowest. Both cross-sectional images visualized the finger tip structures: the layered structures of the thick epithelium and dermis from superficial to deep, wrinkled fingerprint patterns, and sweat ducts in the epithelium. Figures 5(c) and 5(d) show 3D reconstructions of the consecutive cross-sectional images in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). They visualize the 3D tissue structures including the fingerprint orientation.

Fig. 6. Movie of cross-sectional images of internal oral cavity in-vivo. Intensity image (a) and polarization sensitive (PS) image (b) are updated with the cross-section advancing in the orthogonal axis. The intensity image shows layered structures of epithelium and glands from superficial to deep, and the PS image shows no birefringence in the epithelium and some birefringence in the glands [Media 1]

4. Summary and discussion

Acknowledgments

The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

References and links

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5.

J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review,” Skin Research and Technology 7, 1–9 (2001), <Go to ISI>://000166541600001. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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9.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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20.

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21.

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24.

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B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiberoptic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 531–533 (1999). [CrossRef]

27.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S.-j. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express 11, 2416–2424 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers 38, 6133–6137 (1999), <Go to ISI>://000083622000084.

29.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved singla-tonoise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2067–2069 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2183–2189 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequencydomain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005). [CrossRef]

37.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1236–1238 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Peterson, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2261–2263 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1763–1765 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

Y. T. Pan, H. K. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 261966–1968 (2001). [CrossRef]

43.

A. Jain, A. Kopa, Y. T. Pan, G. K. Fedder, and H. K. Xie, “A two-axis electrothermal micromirror for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 636–642 (2004). [CrossRef]

44.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006). [CrossRef]

45.

W. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Threedimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 806–810 (2005). [CrossRef]

46.

A. D. Aguirre, P. R. Hertz, Y. Chen, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Piyawattanametha, L. Fan, and M. C. Wu, “Twoaxis MEMS scanning catheter for ultrahigh resolution three-dimensional and en face Imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 2445–2453 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

47.

J. T. W. Yeow, V. X. D. Yang, A. Chahwan, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and A. A. Goldenberg, “Micromachined 2-D scanner for 3-D optical coherence tomography,” Sens. Actuators A. 117, 331–340 (2005). [CrossRef]

48.

J. M. Zara and P. E. Patterson, “Polyimide amplified piezoelectric scanning mirror for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263901 (2006). [CrossRef]

49.

T. Mitsui, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Watanabe, “A 2-axis optical scanner driven nonresonantly by electromagnetic force for OCT imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2482–2487 (2006). [CrossRef]

50.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 um,” Opt. Express 13, 3931–3944 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

51.

J. A. Burns, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the mucosa of the human vocal fold with optical coherence tomography” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 114, 671–676 (2005). [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(170.2150) Medical optics and biotechnology : Endoscopic imaging
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: August 15, 2007
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: October 30, 2007
Published: December 19, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ki Hean Kim, B. H. Park, Gopi N. Maguluri, Tom W. Lee, Fran J. Rogomentich, Mirela G. Bancu, Brett E. Bouma, Johannes F. de Boer, and Jonathan J. Bernstein, "Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 15, 18130-18140 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-18130


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