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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 11 — Oct. 22, 2008
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Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy

Christophe Odin, Thomas Guilbert, Alia Alkilani, Olena P. Boryskina, Vincent Fleury, and Yann Le Grand  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 16151-16165 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.016151


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Abstract

Collagen and myosin fibrils are endogenous harmonophores that both give rise to Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). By combining four polarization SHG images provided by a scanning microscope, we show that the orientation of the principal axis of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ(2) can be determined for each pixel of the image. The ratio ρ=χ33/χ15 of the principal components of χ(2) of collagen and myosin was obtained with the same method, and found within the range 1.6–1.8 and 0.5–0.6 respectively. The orientation of the principal axis of χ(2) is shown to be correlated to the orientation of the fibrils themselves. This provides a straightforward method, which we call Orientation Field-Second Harmonic Microscopy (OF-SHM), to reconstruct orientation fields of fibrils at various scales and resolutions in different biological systems (from muscle sarcomere to the whole embryo).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Most biological tissues possess some degree of order, that determines their flexibility and elasticity [1

1. K. Kroy, “Elasticity, dynamics and relaxation in biopolymer networks,” Curr. Opin. Colloin. Interface Sci. 11, 56–84 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. These properties are essential in the evolution of multicellular organisms, because they control transport of fluids, nutrients and oxygen, and endow an ability to respond to changing environment. For instance, soft connective tissues such as skin structure protect organs, while tendons or blood vessels connect organs. A primary role is to transmit force or equilibrate pressures. Thus all these structures need to support strong mechanical stresses and strains, such as blood vessels dilations due to blood pulse waves. Being complex fiber-reinforced composite structures, their rheological properties depend on structural organization and features, from the microscopic to macroscopic level [2

2. G. A. Holzapfel “Computational Biomechanics of Soft Biological Tissue,” in Encycl. Comput.Mech. E. Stein, R. de Borst, and T. J. R. Hughes, eds., (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2004) 2, 605–635.

]. Therefore, there is a need to understand both the biological and mechanical characteristics of the cells and extracellular matrix that comprise a tissue or an organ. In particular, the fibrous content leads to highly anisotropic properties, and one of the motivations of this work was to image the orientation and amplitude of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of fibrillar biomaterials.

Due to the difficulties in accurately visualizing the in-depth microstructure of biological tissues, recent attention has been devoted to non-destructive multiphoton microscopy techniques. Nonlinear excitation provides now a large panel of imaging applications [3

3. K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200, 83–104 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 4

4. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic : multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], based on Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) phenomena. The inherent localization of the nonlinear excitation at the objective focal volume provides intrinsic optical sectioning and high in-depth penetration (up to 500 µm) to point-scanning microscopy despite of scattering, while drastically reducing out-of-focus photobleaching and phototoxicity [5

5. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. D. Débarre, A.-M. Pena, W. Supatto, T. Boulesteix, M. Strupler, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Second-and third-harmonic generation microscopies for the structural imaging of intact tissues, Med. Sci. 22, 845–850 (2006).

]. TPEF/SHG microscopy is therefore well suited for in situ and in vivo studies. In particular, TPEF is an incoherent process whose contrast is proportional to the concentration of fluorophores, while SHG is a coherent phenomenon that arises from supramolecules deprived of center of inversion (harmonophores) and organized in noncentrosymmetrical mesoscopic structures. Combining TPEF and SHG contrasts, as well as their polarization dependence, give a lot of information about harmonophore organization [7

7. V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J.-F. Roch, and J. Zyss, “Monitoring of Orientation in Molecular Ensembles by Polarization Sensitive Nonlinear Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403–12410 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. S. Brasselet, V. Le Floch, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401–207404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Nonlinear polarimetry of molecular crystals down to the nanoscale,” C. R. Physique R. Adv. Cryst. Opt. 8, 165–179 (2007).

]. As a consequence of the coherent nature of SHG, the contrast is proportional to the square of the concentration of harmonophores, and is strongly dependent on order and polarization [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

, 11

11. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Tsai, B. L. Chen, C. K. Lin, and Sun. “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86, 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, cells and Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) include a variety of biological macromolecules that give rise to endogenous TPEF and SHG signals [12

12. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb. “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100,7075–7080 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], allowing multiphoton imaging without staining. In addition, fibrous proteins such as type-I collagen and myosin are the main sources of SHG in living tissues [5

5. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 11014–11019 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys J. 90,693–703 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Due to the complexity of the nonlinear interactions, interpretation of TPEF and SHG image contrasts on physical grounds is not straightforward. In particular, determination of the orientation fields of fibrils or bundles of fibrils is a ticklish problem. This difficulty, and the complementarity of TPEF and SHG microscopies is illustrated by the high magnification images of veal muscle presented in Fig. 1 with a RGB color coding. As shown in the theoretical section, the average of four images acquired at input laser polarizations 0, 45, 90 and 135 ° provides a contrast that is independent of the orientation of the fibrils. The striated appearance of the myofibrils due to a segmentation over basic contractile units (sarcomeres) is readily observable as alternating bands Fig. 1(a–f), both in the TPEF and SHG images [14

14. T. Boulesteix, E. Beaurepaire, M. Sauviat, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Second-harmonic microscopy of unstained living cardiac myocytes:measurements of sarcomere length with 20-nm accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2031–2033 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-17-2031 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This unique feature is a direct consequence of the precise alignment of the filament systems of the sarcomeres. It was shown that SHG mostly arises from the myosin-containing thick filaments [15

15. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys J. 90,693–703 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and does not require an overlap with actin filaments.

With the RGB coding used in this presentation, colocalized signal intensities with almost same weights would give a yellow color. But as indicated by the images of Fig. 1 (c) and (f), the red and green colors almost not superimposed, the SHG red bands being in between the TPEF green bands. This alternating structure can be quantified by performing line sections. For instance, a line section over the TPEF and SHG images along the fibrils is shown in Fig. 1(g) : the TPEF and SHG signals alternate in antiphase along the fibril axis, with a separation between two maxima within 2.7–2.9 µm. The spatial FFT of line sections of length ~65µm are shown in Fig. 1(h). A sharp peak at ≈0.358 µm-1 (that corresponds to a period of 2.8 µm) is observed for both TPEF and SHG signals, indicating the almost perfect periodicity of the array of sarcomeres along myofibrils. This period is an estimate of the sarcomere length for this sample. For meat, the sarcomere length determines meat tenderness [16

16. S. T. Jiang, “Contribution of Muscle Proteinases to Meat Tenderization,” Proc. Natl. Sci. Council, ROC, Part B 22, 97–107 (1998).

].

Fig. 1. (color online) : Colocalization of TPEF and SHG signals on veal fresh muscle with a RGB color coding. Full scale 1024×1024 images, 60xW-NA1.2 objective : (a) TPEF (red); (b) Isotropic SHG from Myosin (green); (c) TPEF+SHG (red and green) RGB image. Scale bar : 40µm. (d-e-f) Zoom corresponding to the white rectangle in image (c), scale bar : 20µm. (g) Sections of the TPEF and SHG images along the bundle of myofibrils; (h) Spatial Fourier transforms of 65µm sections.

A close inspection of the image of Fig. 1(e) reveals that the dark bands are not perpendicular to the apparent myosin bundle anywhere. This observation emphasizes the need for a method that measures the fibril orientation independently of the intensity contrast in the image.

We recently proposed the principle of a method [17

17. C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 32–38 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to map the orientation of nonlinear fibrils in biological structures, independently of the contrast of the image. Indeed, using a combination of only four SHG images, we demonstrated that the individual collagen fibers from rat liver ECM and the corresponding orientation of the principal axis of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor are parallel. In this article, we develop further our SHG polarimetric method. The goal of this work was to assess the feasibility and reliability of quantifying the orientation of collagen and myosin fibrils in different tissues where fibrils form dense arrays, at various optical resolutions. We also indicate how the ratio of the components of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ (2) (ρ=χzzz/χzxx for axial systems) can be derived from this method by means of histograms. Application to various biological samples containing collagen or myosin emphasizes the versatility of the method.

2. Theory of SHG polarization analysis and image analysis

The physical grounds of polarization analysis of collagen structures using SHG response can be found for instance in [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

, 18

18. S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 1637–1643(1979). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting Second-Harmonic Generation Images of Collagen I Fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88, 1377–1386 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The main formula and the principles of our method [17

17. C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 32–38 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are summed up in this part.

Second harmonic fields E 2ω originate from a nonlinear polarization P 2ω induced by mixing of intense electric fields Eω at frequency ω in the medium, as described by the tensorial equality P 2ω α=χ (2) αβγ E ω β E ω γ, where χ (2) is the local nonlinear susceptibility tensor, and subscribes α,β,γ refer to the laboratory coordinates (X, Y, Z). The Einstein’s convention for implicit summation of repeated indexes was used. Since the scaffold of a lot of natural soft or hard tissues is composed of fibrils and fibers [20

20. P. Fratzl, “Cellulose and collagen: from fibres to tissues,” Curr. Op. Coll. Int. Sc. 8, 32–39 (2003). [CrossRef]

], it is meaningful to assume that the SHG intensity is generated by rod shaped supramolecules of cylindrical C symmetry. When Kleinman symmetries [21

21. D. A. Kleinman, “Nonlinear Dielectric Polarization in Optical Media,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1977–1979 (1962). [CrossRef]

] are also valid, it can be shown that the nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ (2) has only two independent nonvanishing components χzzz and χzxx. From these assumptions, the resulting SHG intensity for a given pixel of the image can be written as [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

]

I(ϕ,ψ)=U+Vcos(2ψ2ϕ)+Wcos(4ψ4ϕ)
(1)

when no polarization analysis is performed at detection. The incident laser field propagates along Z axis, and is linearly polarized at angle ψ to X axis (Fig. 2a). The symmetry axis z χ of χ (2) is oriented with azimuthal angle ϕ to X axis. The coefficients U, V and W are functions of χzzz, χzxx, and are also proportional to the square of both the input intensity Io and the local concentration c(r) of harmonophores. Explicit expressions for a planar geometry and harmonophores of C symmetry were given in [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

]. Defining I ∝[χzxx Io c(r)]2 as the intensity measured when the laser polarization is perpendicular to zχ, we obtained

U=I8(3ρ2+2ρ+7)
(2)
V=I2(ρ21)
(3)
W=I8(ρ22ρ3)
(4)

where ρ=χzzz/χzxx. This parameter will give us information about the structural organization of the harmonophores (Fig. 2b) within the fibril [15

15. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys J. 90,693–703 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2. (color online) : (a) Schematic of a fibril carrying the nonlinear susceptibility χ (2) in the laboratory frame : laser polarization and C symmetry axis Zχ angles with respect to X axis are ψ and ϕ respectively ; (c) Two interpretations of the polar angle θ used to calculate ρ in Eq.(10) for C harmonophore structures. (c) SHG and TPEF experimental set-up, with laser polarization control. DM=Dichroic mirror, PMT=Photomultiplier Tube.

Equation (1), or equivalent expressions were mainly used to measure the parameter ρ (see for instance [18

18. S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 1637–1643(1979). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 12286–12295 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12286 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16, 1846–1859 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1846 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), by assuming a priori that zχ is parallel to the apparent fibrils. The value of ρ is derived by fitting with Eq.(1) the mean image intensity as a function of laser polarization. Stoller [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

] further used a sophisticated method based on electro-optical modulation of the input laser field to reconstruct the patterns of orientations of zχ at a micrometric scale by using a sample scanning experiment. However, the proposed setup cannot be implemented on galvanometer-based scanning microscopes like commercial confocal setups. Moreover the method implicitly assumed that the orientation of zχ is perfectly correlated to the fibril orientation itself.

I02(ϕ)=[I0(ϕ)I2(ϕ)]2=Vcos(2ϕ)
I31(ϕ)=[I3(ϕ)I1(ϕ)]2=Vsin(2ϕ)
(5)

since the cos(4ψ-4ϕ) contributions cancel.

The intensity differences I 02(ϕ) and I 31(ϕ) fully determine 2ϕ within the interval [-π,π]. Letting c=cos(2ϕ) and s=sin(2ϕ), angle 2ϕ=atan2(s,c) within [-π,π] is obtained from the four-quadrant generalized inverse tangent function atan2 defined as

atan2(s,c)=arctan(sc)ifc>0
atan2(s,c)=π+arctan(sc)ifc<0ands>0
atan2(s,c)=π+arctan(sc)ifc<0ands<0
(6)

This bijective function atan2 within [-π,π] is a standard ANSI C function, and is implemented in many languages. Since ϕ ∊ [-π/2,π/2], the orientation is only defined to a multiple of π. This is consistent for cylindrical uniform fibrils. The local orientations are represented in the following figures by symmetrical bars, that are supposed to define the tangent to the fibrils (assuming that the nonlinear susceptibility and the fibril share the same symmetry axis ; this point is further discussed in the subsequent sections).

Since the calculations use differences and ratios of intensities, it avoids problems due to intensity offsets and scaling. It is important to note that ϕ can be determined unambiguously even when the values of U, V, W vary from pixel to pixel, as long as the sign of V remains homogeneous over the image. This property explains the robustness of the estimation of ϕ to slight departures from the hypothesis leading to Eq.(1), such as neglecting birefringence effects. Moreover, ϕ is shifted by π/2 if the wrong sign is assigned to V. Using Eq.(3) and the results of [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

, 22

22. F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 12286–12295 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12286 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16, 1846–1859 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1846 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we observed that in general, ρ>1, that is V>0 for type I collagen, while ρ<1 and V<0 for myosin. Thus, in the following, we use the convention that the orientation angle is given by

ifV>0,2ϕ=atan2(I31,I02)
(7)
ifV<0,2ϕ=atan2(I31,I02)
(8)

for each meaningful pixel, depending on whether the tissue contains collagen or myosin as a major component.

We would like to stress that the apparent sign undetermination of V in our method is equivalent to the choice of the orientation reference in a classical SHG polarization analysis : the orientation of the fibrils is determined from the images to fix a reference angle before performing the polarization analysis. The corresponding hypothesis in our method is to fix the sign of V in order to align the orientation field with the apparent orientation of the fibrils deduced from the contrast of the isotropic image. This hypothesis can be applied to determine the sign of V a posteriori if it is not known a priori.

Homemade routines programmed in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) were developed to implement an automated image analysis. Before combining the four images I n(ϕ), three operations were performed : (i) the saturated pixels and pixels of zero values of each of the four polarization images were detected and indexed, which generated four sets of indexes. Therefore, the union with no repetition of these four sets of indexes defines the set of indexes of non relevant pixels, that is where any of the four images is zero or saturated. All these pixels were discarded for the calculation of orientation fields; (ii) the typical salt and pepper noise of SHG images is attenuated with a 3×3 uniform or gaussian filter (note that both filters give the same result) ; (iii) Using the same method as in (i), the pixels where I 02 or I 31 are zero or equal to the maximum value are discarded. After calculation of U, V and ϕ, the pixels where the polarization contrast V or mean intensity U are too small with respect to noise can be assigned a special color in the colormap coding of the contrast of the images to highlight doubtful regions of interest.

3. Experimental methods

3.1. Experimental setup and imaging conditions

Sample preparation

Fresh sheep tendons, and veal cutlets were directly obtained from the butcher the morning of the experiment days. Then, 100 or 200-µm thick sections were cut from the middle of the tendon, or from the veat muscle, and placed between a microscope slide and a 170-µm-thick cover-glass. To avoid dehydration, the edges of the cover-glass were sealed with nail polish.

Fertilized chick eggs (gallus gallus) were incubated in humidified atmosphere at 37 °C until the needed age. The albumen was drained out from a hole in the blunt-end of the egg’s shell before opening a square window in the shell. The embryo was then rescued and washed in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and staged according to Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) [26

26. H. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J.Morphol. 88, 49–92 (1951). [CrossRef]

]. A part of the embryo’s muscles or head were extracted and spread over a cover-glass before performing TPEF/SHG experiments.

4. Collagen and myosin fibril orientations

4.1. Sheep tendon collagen

As a first example of application of our OF-SHM method to a dense tissue, we choose tendon (here sheep tendon) sections for the following reasons. First, type-I collagen accounts for 65–80% of the dry mass of tendons, and gives a strong SHG signal. Second, the subfascicular units consist of fibres, fibrils and microfibrils of collagen, that can be easily identified at different hierarchical levels. Depending on the region of interest and imaging scale, a wavy organization of the fibrils or microfibrils can be detected, but the microfibrils are mostly arranged into parallel bundles. Thus the structural organization of tendon insures a high microfibril concentration, with only small spatial defects that preserve a high optical coherence between the generated SHG signals, resulting in a very high overall SHG signal.

Figure 3 presents high magnification (60x objective) SHG images of a non uniform region, that exhibits well separated fibrils with various orientations. The estimated lateral wxy and axial wz extents of the two-photon Point Spread Function (PSF) [4

4. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic : multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are 0.4µm and 2µm respectively. The value of wxy matches approximately the pixel size. The four images in Fig. 3(a1–a4) show how the SHG contrast varies with laser polarizations. The polarization contrast is rather high, as expected for a sample with a high degree of order. The isotropic image U obtained by averaging the four images is presented in Fig. 3(b). From the value of wz of our high-NA objective, it can be deduced that the observed fibrils are mainly in the image plane : the typical length of the fibrils being larger than 40µm, the maximum out-of-plane angle is ≈1/20 rad <3 °. Thus, we mainly studied the orientation of the symmetry axis of the nonlinear susceptibility of fibrils lying in the focal plane. The corresponding orientation field derived from Eqs.(5,6,7) is shown in Fig. 3(c), where a small bar centered on the Region of Interest (ROI) represents the local orientation ϕ. This orientation has to be compared with the apparent orientation of the fibrils as they appear in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 3. SHG of sheep tendon collagen (60xW-NA1.2 objective, 512×512 images, full scale 235µm). (a1–a4) Acquisition with four polarizations indicated by the double white arrows; (b) isotropic image; (c) Orientation field represented by bars directed along the symmetry axis of the nonlinear susceptibility (one bar for each bloc of 16×16 pixels); (d) Masks selecting different fibrils; (e) Correlation between the apparent orientation of the fibrils (abscissa) and the orientation of the principal axis of the SHG nonlinear susceptibility (ordinate).

A quantification of the correlation between the two orientations is performed as follows. We assumed that possible Moire effects due to the fibrillar nature of the sample, and subtle SHG coherent effects, do not cause significant errors in the apparent fibril orientation as seen from the isotropic image U. Under this assumption, apparent fibrils are manually selected by rectangular ROIs to create elongated masks M, that are presented in Fig. 3(d). Then, for each mask, we calculated : (i) the mean direction of the rectangular mask; (ii) the mean orientation angle ϕM of the SHG nonlinear susceptibility axis within the mask. Circular Statistics [27

27. K. V. Mardia and P. E. Jupp, Directional Statistics (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2000).

] gives the following formula

ϕM=12atan2(Σα,βMsin(ϕαβ)Σα,βMcos(ϕαβ))
(9)

An important question is whether at lower magnification and resolution, OF-SHM polarization allows the reconstruction of orientation fields of the fibrillar structure even if individual fibers cannot be resolved. The interest of our method for the study of dense systems is illustrated in Fig. 4, where large scale images of sheep tendon were obtained using the 10X objective (wxy≈1µm and wz≈10µm).

Fig. 4. SHG of sheep tendon collagen (10x-NA0.25 objective, 256×256 images, full scale 625µm). (a1–a4) 4 polarization images for the reference orientation. (b) Orientation field of the a-image by blocks of 16×16 pixels. (c1–c4) 4 polarization images of the sample that was physically rotated by 20°; (d) Orientation Field of the c-image; (e) Histograms of the orientations. For clarity, the different histograms were vertically shifted : (Top) histograms for all the pixels of the image; (Middle and Bottom) Histograms of the 80×80 ROI at the top left and bottom right corners of the image respectively; The histograms were normalized with a weight corresponding to the size of the ROI. Continuous lines are gaussian fits.

The normalized histograms of the orientation for all 256×256 pixels of the two images corresponding to the two sample orientations are presented in Fig. 4(e). For circular distributions, the analogue of the gaussian distribution is the von Mises [27

27. K. V. Mardia and P. E. Jupp, Directional Statistics (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2000).

] distribution w(ψ) ~ exp(κ cos(ψ-ψm)), where large concentration parameter κ indicate small orientation disorder around the mean direction ψm. When κ≫1, it is is well approximated by a gaussian ~ exp[(ψ-ψm)2/2σ 2 ψ] with κ=1/σ 2 ψ. Both distributions were used to fit the data by a leastsquare method, and give almost indistinguishable results with a square of the correlation coefficient R 2≈0.992 for the two orientations. The best fitting parameters were found to be ψm=41.3°±0.1, σψ=6° and ψm=60.1°±0.1, σψ=6.3° for respectively the reference orientation and the one rotated by 20°. For both orientations, the angular dispersions are identical, while the mean angle is modified by the rotation angle, as expected.

The observed angular dispersion σψ≈6° is due to at least two contributions : (i) disorientation of the fibrils due to the natural crimp of collagen fibrils ; (ii) angular noise coming from the method. As indicated by Fig. 4(b) and (d), regions of different orientations can be distinguished in the whole image. To try to unravel the different contributions, we also select ROIs of 80×80 pixels. We expect the first contribution to decrease as the distribution of the orientation of the fibrils becomes more peaked while the second one should not vary. The corresponding histograms are presented in Fig. 4(e). Again, the mean angles of both ROIs are shifted by 20°. Since the lowest dispersion value was ψm≈3°, we can infer that the contribution of the OF-SHM method to the angular dispersion is around 3°. These results confirm the potentiality of OF-SHM to measure orientation fields when the fibrils cannot be resolved.

4.2. Myosin in veal muscle and chicken embryo

Muscles are organized in fiber bundles, the fiber itself being organized hierarchically. It contains hundreds of parallely aligned myofibrils, laterally interconnected by intermediate filaments. Each myofibril consists of serially connected sarcomeres, the structural and functional unit in a muscle fiber, and its length is an important feature for contraction analyzes. The structural organization of the 3D myofibril array, with series and parallel connections, is an important parameter to understand muscle properties. The fibrous protein myosin is a good nonlinear optical source, that gives the opportunity to study muscles by SHG microscopy. In this part, we will focus only on the validation of OF-SHM microscopy to myosin containing samples, with the study of a chicken embryo muscle, and by reconsidering the case of veal meat with regards to the problem pointed out in the introduction.

For the chicken embryo, myofibrils start to be formed from the 6th day of incubation. After the 8th day of incubation, these myofibrils start to coalesce between them to form muscular cells [29

29. M. H. Stromer, D. E. Goll, R. B. Young, R. M. Robson, and F. C. Parrish, “Ultrastructural features of skeletal muscle differentiation and development,” Jr. J. Anim Sci. 38, 1111–1141 (1974).

]. Figure 5 presents a longitudinal section of a striated muscular tissue dissected from the back of a 6–7th days of incubation chicken embryo, and imaged with a 10x-NA0.25 objective. Three bundles of myosin filaments are presented, and the SHG contrast comes from myosin. This point can be confirmed by remarking that only V<0 gives an orientation field (Fig. 5(c)) that fits the orientation of the apparent fibrils as seen on the isotropic image of Fig. 5(b). The important point shown by Fig. 5(b) is that each bundle contains a series of myofibrils arranged in an almost parallel fashion. The myofibrils can be well resolved, and the mean interfibril distance was estimated to be ~15µm. This is consistent with the fact that at this stage of the development, myofibrils are not fused yet between them in order to form muscular cells.

Fig. 5. SHG images from myosin of the muscle of the back of a 7 days chicken embryo (10x-NA0.25 objective, 768×768 images, full scale 938µm). Scale bar : 100µm. The legends are similar to Fig. 3.

In the adult case, myofibrils fuse to form a muscular cell. Figure 6 shows a striated muscular tissue from a veal escalope at high magnification (60x), that appears smoother than the muscle in the embryonic case. We then reconsidered the orientation field of veal muscle obtained by using 10x and 60x magnifications. The orientation field of Fig. 6(c) at 10x magnification follows the apparent flow of myofibrils as seen on TPEF and SHG images of Fig. 6(a) and (b) respectively. A good agreement is still observed at the higher 60x magnification, as shown in Fig. 6(d,e,f).

Fig. 6. (Color online) TPEF, myosin SHG and orientation field of veal muscle at two scales. First raw: 10x-NA0.25 objective, 400×400 images, scale bar 100µm. (a) TPEF; (b) SHG; (c) Orientation field superimposed on the isotropic SHG image. Second raw : 60xW-NA1.2 objective, 1024×1024 images, full scale 235µm; (d1–4) 4 polarization images; (e) Orientation Field; (f) Detail of the orientation field with superimposed isotropic SHG image.

As explained in the introduction, the direction of the myofibrils may not be perpendicular to the striated structure due to the sarcomeres. This point is clearly illustrated in Fig. 6(f), that shows a striated structure that is not perpendicular (116°) to the principal direction of the myofibril bundle, as indicated either by the bundle border or by the average direction of zχ obtained by OF-SHM. This observation raises the question of the extrinsic or intrinsic origin of this ~30° misorientation. Extrinsic origins may come from the physical and optical sectioning of the myofibril bundles. For the intrinsic origin, we propose the following interpretation. If the myofibrils are all packed parallel to a given direction with the same starting point, then the sarcomeres will be in phase with each other, and the dark bands will appear perpendicular to the packing direction. However, if the fibrils are shifted by the same increment from each other, the fibrils staying still parallel, the dark bands will be no longer perpendicular to the myofibril orientations. This example points out the interest in measuring the orientation field to interpret images provided by second harmonic microscopy.

5. Ratios ρ of the nonlinear susceptibility components for collagen and myosin

ρ=2tan2θ
(10)

The influence of polar disorder was also considered in [22

22. F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 12286–12295 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12286 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 30

30. A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vié, D. Rouède, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and orientation of amphiphilic push-pull chromophores deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by second-harmonic generation and atomic force microscopy, Langmuir 20, 8165–8171 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. From Eq.(4), the ratio V/U is independent of the laser intensity, harmonophore concentration, and reads

VU=4[ρ21][3ρ2+2ρ+7]
(11)

As ρ varies from 0 to +∞, V/U(ρ) is a increasing function varying between -4/7 and 4/3. Eq.(11) can be inverted to give ρ>0 as

ρ=r+24(1+r)5r243r
(12)

where r=|V|/U under the hypothesis that ρ>1 and r=-|V|/U if 0<ρ<1, since only the absolute value |V|/U can be measured from our 4-polarizations analysis.

Fig. 7. Relationship between |V|/U and ρ from Eq.(12).(a) Histogram of |V|/U for sheep tendon collagen obtained from a 512×512 image acquired with an 60xW-NA1.2 objective; (b) Theoretical relationship Eq.(12) between ρ and |V|/U when 0<ρ<1 or ρ>1; (c) Histogram of ρ values corresponding to the |V|/U values of Fig. 7(a).

The evolution of ρ as a function of |V|/U is presented in Fig. 7(b). When ρ>1 (or |V|/U becoming closer to 4/3), ρ is a very strongly increasing function of |V|/U. The relationship is almost linear for small values of |V|/U. In calculating ρ from Eq.(12), the values of |r| that are not in the range 0<|r|<4/7 when ρ<1 and 0<|r|<4/3 when ρ>1 should be discarded. The discrepancy between the measured |V|/U values and these limits are generally due to noise, simplifying assumptions (for instance the hypothesis χ 31/χ 15=1 may not be exactly verified) and also limitations of the model that does not take into account of sample birefringence and axial field components in the vicinity of the geometrical focal point. Note that these assumptions are more compelling for the estimate of ρ than for the estimation of ϕ that does not depend on the value of the coefficients U, V, and W, but only on the sign of V. The transformation of the histogram of |V|/U in Fig. 7(a) into the histogram of ρ in Fig. 7(c) using Eq.(12) is also illustrated using the data of a SHG image of collagen from sheep tendon.

In the following, we analyze the distribution of ρ over several samples of collagen and myosin. We made the hypothesis that ρ>1 and ρ<1 for collagen and myosin respectively.

The mean ρ value, denoted as <ρ >, and standard deviation σρ can be calculated from raw data, and the results are summarized in Table 1. We used Eq.(10) to calculate the polar angles corresponding to the values of ρ. However, in order to obtain symmetric confidence

Table 1. Mean values of ρ for collagen and myosin. <ρ> and σρ are respectively the mean and standard deviation of ρ calculated directly from the raw data with usual formula. The polar angle θ¯ and its incertitude Δθ were calculated as explained in the text.

table-icon
View This Table

interval for angle θ, we defined θ±=atan(2(<ρ>±σρ)), and used θ̄=(θ++θ-)/2 and Δθ=|θ+-θ-|/2. These results are also reported in Table 1 as θ̄±Δθ.

Though the measured values of ρ, as well as the corresponding polar angles θ, are in good agreement with the values reported in literature [10

10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

, 11

11. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Tsai, B. L. Chen, C. K. Lin, and Sun. “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86, 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys J. 90,693–703 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 1637–1643(1979). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 12286–12295 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12286 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16, 1846–1859 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1846 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the error bars are larger than in conventional procedures using more than four polarization states and an intensity averaging over many pixels. It is due to the non redundancy of our 4-polarization method. We also verified that the results are almost independent of the NA value of the objective used for collagen in sheep tendon, since the confidence interval of both values superimpose.

6. Conclusion and perspectives

In the present study, we have shown that only four SHG images are necessary and sufficient to estimate the local orientation of the principal axis of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ (2) of collagen and myosin, that was proved to be strongly correlated to the fibril orientation. Moreover, the data also lead to an estimation of the ratio ρ of the two non-vanishing components of χ (2). Our study shows that the method works well for non-dense and dense arrays of collagen or myosin fibrils. Thus OF-SHM gives the opportunity to reconstruct the orientation fields of collagen and myosin fibrils within tissues, with minimum measurement time and photodamage.

The method still have some room for improvements, both to reduce experimental errors as well as improving the interpretation of orientational fields, and automation. Current work are under progress to further increase the amount of information that can be derived from OF-SHM.

By way of perspectives, we present two preliminary applications of orientation field measurements to chicken embryology. The first example, presented in Fig. 8, concerns the formation of feather buds [31

31. O. P. Boryskina, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, and V. Fleury, “The role of distribution and orientation of collagen fibers in tissue development: study by means of double imaging by two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy”, Proc Europ. Microw. Assoc. 4, 255–259 (2008).

]. As shown in Fig. 8(c), the orientation field in the inter-bud region is homogeneous, and along the main orientation of the fibroblasts that are delineated by collagen fibers as seen in Fig. 8(b). Within the buds, a singularity appears and the orientation field appears radial.

The second example, reported in Fig. 9, reveals the orientation field within the head of a HH8 chicken embryo. The superposition on Fig. 9(c) of isotropic TPEF and SHG images of Figs.9(a) and (b) respectively, shows that the fluorescent contribution (TPEF) embodies the collagen component (SHG). The SHG intensity is stronger along the border of the embryo, indicating a higher collagen concentration that probably corresponds to an outgrowth or a folding of the mesoderm at the boundary. The collagen fibrils also appear to organize perpendicular to the embryo border, as shown by the reconstructed orientation field of Fig. 9(d). This is consistent with the fact that the part of the embryonic ectoderm intended to form the brain and the spinalcord (neural plate) is rolled up and inserted under the skin to form the mesoderm. At the end of this stage, new cells of the mesoderm intercalate between the first invaginated cells and will be aligned together in the same direction of migration perpendicularly to the neural crest [32

32. M. L. Concha and R. J. Adams, “Oriented cell divisions and cellular morphogenesis in the zebrafish gastrula and neurula: a time-lapse analysis,” Development 125, 983–994 (1998). [PubMed]

].

Fig. 8. SHG images of the skin of a 9 days (HH35) chicken embryo (10x-NA0.25 objective).(a) Full scale SHG image (1024×1024) ;(b) Zoom of the ROI delineated by the white rectangle (512×512 image) ;(c) Orientation field. Scale bars : 100µm.
Fig. 9. (color online) Head of a HH8 Chicken Embryo imaged with a 10x-NA0.25 objective (700×700 image, 940×940µm2). (a) TPEF (Red) ;(b) Collagen SHG (green) ;(c) TPEF+SHG ;(d) Orientation field ;(e) Masks delineating the border of the embryo ;(f) Correlation between the SHG and masks orientations, corrected by 90°.

That collagen fibrils are perpendicular to the embryo border can be proved from the analysis of the orientation field of collagen fibrils along the border of the embryo, as shown by Fig. 9(d–f). The orientation orthogonal to rectangles delineating the embryo border and the corresponding orientation of zχ are well correlated (R 2≈0.925) (Fig. 9(f)). In other words, the collagen fibrils are in the same direction as the fibroblasts of the mesoderm, that produce the collagen in the extracellular matrix. Further work is under progress to study the evolution of orientation fields in the chicken embryo as a function of development, at various spatial scales.

In summary, our method named Orientation Field-Second Harmonic Microscopy or OF-SHM, thus provides a nondestructive and potentially noninvasive technique to perform in-depth imaging of nonlinear fibrillar structures (collagen, myosin,…), and to evaluate the structural organization typical of healthy or diseased tissues. OF-SHM applies up to a few hundreds micrometers in depth, and does not necessitates staining since it uses endogenous signals. Other applications of OF-SHM may cover analysis of liver or lung fibrosis, skin pathologies, soft tissue or muscle scarring, neuromuscular diseases, electrophysiology…

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Région Bretagne and Rennes Métropole.

References and links

1.

K. Kroy, “Elasticity, dynamics and relaxation in biopolymer networks,” Curr. Opin. Colloin. Interface Sci. 11, 56–84 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

G. A. Holzapfel “Computational Biomechanics of Soft Biological Tissue,” in Encycl. Comput.Mech. E. Stein, R. de Borst, and T. J. R. Hughes, eds., (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2004) 2, 605–635.

3.

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200, 83–104 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic : multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. Débarre, A.-M. Pena, W. Supatto, T. Boulesteix, M. Strupler, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Second-and third-harmonic generation microscopies for the structural imaging of intact tissues, Med. Sci. 22, 845–850 (2006).

7.

V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J.-F. Roch, and J. Zyss, “Monitoring of Orientation in Molecular Ensembles by Polarization Sensitive Nonlinear Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403–12410 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floch, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401–207404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, “Nonlinear polarimetry of molecular crystals down to the nanoscale,” C. R. Physique R. Adv. Cryst. Opt. 8, 165–179 (2007).

10.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen,” Biophys. J.82, 3330–3342 (2002).

11.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Tsai, B. L. Chen, C. K. Lin, and Sun. “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86, 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb. “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100,7075–7080 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 11014–11019 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Boulesteix, E. Beaurepaire, M. Sauviat, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Second-harmonic microscopy of unstained living cardiac myocytes:measurements of sarcomere length with 20-nm accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2031–2033 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-17-2031 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys J. 90,693–703 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

S. T. Jiang, “Contribution of Muscle Proteinases to Meat Tenderization,” Proc. Natl. Sci. Council, ROC, Part B 22, 97–107 (1998).

17.

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, “Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 32–38 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. Roth and I. Freund, “Second harmonic generation in collagen,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 1637–1643(1979). [CrossRef]

19.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting Second-Harmonic Generation Images of Collagen I Fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88, 1377–1386 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

P. Fratzl, “Cellulose and collagen: from fibres to tissues,” Curr. Op. Coll. Int. Sc. 8, 32–39 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

D. A. Kleinman, “Nonlinear Dielectric Polarization in Optical Media,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1977–1979 (1962). [CrossRef]

22.

F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, “Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 12286–12295 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12286 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16, 1846–1859 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1846 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Odin, “NMR studies of Phase Transitions,” Ann. Rep. NMR Spectr., G. Webb ed (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2006) 59, 117–205. [CrossRef]

25.

L. Gao, L. Jin, P. Xue, J. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Ma, and D. Chen, “Reconstruction of complementary images in second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 4727–4735 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4727 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

H. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J.Morphol. 88, 49–92 (1951). [CrossRef]

27.

K. V. Mardia and P. E. Jupp, Directional Statistics (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2000).

28.

P. J. Elbischger, H. Bischof, P. Regitnig, and G. A. Holzapfel, “Automatic analysis of collagen fiber orientation in the outermost layer of human arteries,” Pattern Anal Applic 7, 269–284 (2004).

29.

M. H. Stromer, D. E. Goll, R. B. Young, R. M. Robson, and F. C. Parrish, “Ultrastructural features of skeletal muscle differentiation and development,” Jr. J. Anim Sci. 38, 1111–1141 (1974).

30.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vié, D. Rouède, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and orientation of amphiphilic push-pull chromophores deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by second-harmonic generation and atomic force microscopy, Langmuir 20, 8165–8171 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

O. P. Boryskina, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, and V. Fleury, “The role of distribution and orientation of collagen fibers in tissue development: study by means of double imaging by two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy”, Proc Europ. Microw. Assoc. 4, 255–259 (2008).

32.

M. L. Concha and R. J. Adams, “Oriented cell divisions and cellular morphogenesis in the zebrafish gastrula and neurula: a time-lapse analysis,” Development 125, 983–994 (1998). [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(160.1435) Materials : Biomaterials
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 26, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2008
Published: September 26, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Christophe Odin, Thomas Guilbert, Alia Alkilani, Olena P. Boryskina, Vincent Fleury, and Yann Le Grand, "Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 16151-16165 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-16151


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References

  1. K. Kroy, "Elasticity, dynamics and relaxation in biopolymer networks," Curr. Opin. Colloin. Interface Sci. 11, 56-84 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Holzapfel "Computational Biomechanics of Soft Biological Tissue," in Encycl. Comput. Mech. E. Stein, R. de Borst and T. J. R. Hughes, eds., (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2004) 2, 605-635.
  3. K. Konig, "Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences," J. Microsc. 200, 83-104 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic : multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Debarre, A.-M. Pena, W. Supatto, T. Boulesteix, M. Strupler, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, M.-C. Schanne- Klein and E. Beaurepaire, "Second-and third-harmonic generation microscopies for the structural imaging of intact tissues, Med. Sci. 22, 845-850 (2006).
  7. V. Le Floc'h, S. Brasselet, J.-F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of Orientation in Molecular Ensembles by Polarization Sensitive Nonlinear Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Brasselet, V. Le Floch, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, "In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401- 207404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, "Nonlinear polarimetry of molecular crystals down to the nanoscale," C. R. Physique R. Adv. Cryst. Opt. 8, 165-179 (2007).
  10. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen," Biophys. J. 82, 3330-3342 (2002).
  11. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun. "Studies of |(2)/|(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86, 3914- 3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman and W. W. Webb. "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100,7075-7080 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 11014-11019 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Boulesteix, E. Beaurepaire, M. Sauviat, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, "Second-harmonic microscopy of unstained living cardiac myocytes:measurements of sarcomere length with 20-nm accuracy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2031-2033 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-17-2031 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, "Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres," Biophys J. 90,693-703 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. S. T. Jiang, "Contribution of Muscle Proteinases to Meat Tenderization," Proc. Natl. Sci. Council, ROC, Part B 22, 97-107 (1998).
  17. C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, "Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Microsc. 229, 32-38 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Roth and I. Freund, "Second harmonic generation in collagen," J. Chem. Phys. 70, 1637-1643(1979). [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Interpreting Second-Harmonic Generation Images of Collagen I Fibrils," Biophys. J. 88, 1377-1386 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Fratzl, "Cellulose and collagen: from fibres to tissues," Curr. Op. Coll. Int. Sc. 8, 32-39 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Kleinman, "Nonlinear Dielectric Polarization in Optical Media," Phys. Rev. 126, 1977-1979 (1962). [CrossRef]
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