OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 7 — Apr. 26, 2010
« Show journal navigation

Quasi 3-dimensional optical trapping by two counter-propagating beams in nano-fiber

Lihua Zhao, Yudong Li, Jiwei Qi, Jingjun Xu, and Qian Sun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 5724-5729 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005724


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (161 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Optical forces on a nanoparticle around an absorptive dielectric nano-fiber illuminated by two linear polarized counter-propagating beams were investigated. The results show the scattering force of the two beams causes the steady trapping along the fiber and the gradient force makes the trapping in the transverse plane of the nano-fiber. By altering the intensity ratio between the two incident beams and the polarization direction of the beams, manipulation along the nano-fiber and in the transverse direction can be realized, respectively. The numerical results present a new promising method to realize quasi 3-dimensional optical manipulation.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, there has been an increased focus in optical manipulation of micro and nanoparticles [1

1. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007). [CrossRef]

3

3. R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, S. Kuriakose, V. Garcés-Chávez, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3712–3726 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For instance, as the traditional excellent tools for manipulating particles ranging in size from several micrometers to a few hundred nanometers, the optical tweezer [4

4. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has been used to manipulate and trap micro-scale objects [5

5. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], liquid droplets [6

6. P. H. Jonesa, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081113 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and even some submicron objects such as viruses [7

7. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Viruses and Bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and silver nanoparticles [8

8. L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1486–1491 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, there is also indirectly using of optically induced microfluidic effects [9

9. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The precision with which particles can be manipulated with these techniques makes them particularly useful for applications ranging from flow cytometry [11

11. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005). [CrossRef]

] to self-assembly [13

13. G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, J. Cooper, and Z. J. Laczik, “Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5475–5480 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Alternatively, evanescent field is another way to realize optical manipulation. Almeida et al. [14

14. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] developed a slot waveguide, composing of a nanoscale slot sandwiched between two materials of much higher refractive index. This structure provides an excellent method for not only possible long distance transportation of the particles along the slot but also trapping of particles in 2-dimension, which is inside and along the slot. Very recently, Yang et al. [15

15. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] demonstrated the trapping and transport of polystyrene nanoparticles and DNA molecules using this kind of slotted silicon waveguides. It also has been shown that the nano-fiber [16

16. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] can be used for the trapping or guiding atom [17

17. V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. L. Kien, J. Q Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004). [CrossRef]

19

19. G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where the atom can be confined along two straight lines parallel to the fiber axis, or further efficient tools as the nano-probes for atoms [20

20. F. L. Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: Efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, the scattering of particles in proximity of a nano-fiber surface has also been investigated [22

22. S. Wang, X. Pan, and L. Tong, “Modeling of nanoparticle-induced Rayleigh–Gans scattering for nanofiber optical sensing,” Opt. Commun. 276(2), 293–297 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

2. Model and theoretical investigation

Figure 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of calculation model. Two counter-propagating beams, beam I and II, are incident upon the nano-fiber end. The rectangular coordinates for each beam are also given. L presents the length of the nano-fiber.
shows the schematic of the model. A dielectric nano-fiber, with the length of L and the diameter of D, is illuminated by two coherent counter-propagating beams, beam I and II, which propagate along +z and –z directions, respectively. The incident beams are assumed to be linear polarized along Y-axis with the same uniform amplitude of 105V/m. The incident wavelength is taken as 550nm. The nano-fiber only includes the high refractive index core and is surrounded by infinite water cladding (n=1.33). The core is taken as fused silica, of which the refractive index is taken as 1.46 from the dispersion formula [23

23. P. Klocek, Handbook of infrared optical materials (Marcel Dekker, 1991).

].

E1 and E2 present the electric field of beam I and II, respectively. For the convenience, we used two cylindrical coordinates (r, φ, z) and (r’, φ’, z’) to calculate E1 and E2. The left and right end faces of the nano-fiber were set to be z=0 and z’=0, respectively. So it can be obtained that z=L-z’. And the unit vectors of the two cylindrical coordinates follow the relations: r0=r0,φ0=φ0,z0=z0.

It is assumed that the nano-fiber can only support fundamental guiding mode, HE11 mode [24

24. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. With the assumption of monochromatic incidence, the electric field distribution of the nano-fiber is described as:
E=E1+E2=[(Err0+Eφφ0+Ezz0)eiβzeγz/2+(Err0+Eφφ0+Ezz0)eiβzeγz/2]eiωt
(1)
where (Er,Eφ,Ez) and (Er,Eφ, Ez) are the electric field components along the unit vector (r0,φ0,z0) and (r0,φ0,z0) in the two cylindrical coordinates, respectively. γ presents the absorption coefficient of the fiber core. According to the guiding mode theory [24

24. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Er,EφandEzare described as:
Er=UWa1K0(WR)a2K2(WR)K1(W)f1(φ),Eφ=UWa1K0(WR)+a2K2(WR)K1(W)g1(φ),Ez=iUaβK1(WR)K1(W)f1(φ)
(2)
Heref1(φ)=cos(φ),g1(φ)=sin(φ). The initial phase of beams I and II are all assumed to be 0. β is the transfer constant, determined by its eigen-value equation [24

24. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Considering the relationship of (r0,φ0,z0) and (r0,φ0,z0), it can be obtained that Er=Er,Eφ=Eφ,Ez=Ez.So the components of the electric field along r0, φ0 and z0 outside the nano-fiber can be described as:
Ea=Ereiβzeγz/2+Ereiβz'eγz'/2=Ereiβzeγz/2+Ereiβ(Lz)eγ(Lz)/2
(3)
Eb=Eφeiβzeγz/2Eφeiβz'eγz'/2=Eφeiβzeγz/2+Eφeiβ(Lz)eγ(Lz)/2
(4)
Ec=Ezeiβzeγz/2Ezeiβz'eγz'/2=Ezeiβzeγz/2Ezeiβ(Lz)eγ(Lz)/2
(5)
Hence the intensity of light outside the nano-fiber can be written as:

I=12n2ε0cE·E*=12n2ε0c(|Ea|2+|Eb|2+|Ec|2)
(6)

According to the Rayleigh mode of optical trapping, the nanoparticle undergoes two kinds of force, scattering force (Fscat) and gradient force (Fgrad), which are described as [25

25. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996). [CrossRef]

]:
Fscat=Cpr<S(r,t)>Tc/n2
(7)
Fgrad=2πn2a3c(n21n2+2)I
(8)
S(r,t)=S1(r,t)+S2(r,t). S1and S2 are the Poynting vectors of beam I and II, respectively, where Sn(r,t)=εEn2(r,t), n=1, 2. Here <S(r,t)>T is the time average of the Poynting vector. Cpr=83π(ka)4a2(n21n2+2)2 is the scattering cross-section. c and k present the light velocity and the wave vector in the vacuum. a is the particle diameter, and I is the intensity. n=np/n2 is the relative refractive index, while np=1.592 and n2=1.33 present the refractive index of the particle and the surrounding, respectively. From the Eq. (8), it can be known that the direction of the gradient force always points to the position where the intensity I reaches the maximum.

In this work, trapping target is limited to the nanoparticle with diameter of tens of nanometers due to the Rayleigh mode. Besides, if the diameter of particle reached hundreds of nanometers, the electric field outside the nano-fiber would be influenced by the coupling between the fiber and the particles and therefore the formulas above are no longer available.

3. Results and discussions

Firstly, we consider the trapping along the longitudinal axis, i.e. z-axis in Fig. 1. Different from the situation that particles are driven to move along the nano-fiber or the nano-waveguide, upon which only one beam is incident, in this work, steady trapping is achieved.

In our model, beams I and II illuminate the nano-fiber simultaneously. When the nano-fiber is non-absorptive, the total Poynting vector S keeps zero along z-axis and the scattering force is zero. The gradient force variation is of uniform sinusoidal profile. So there is no steady trapping. If absorption coefficient γ ≠ 0, S is no longer uniform. <S1>T><S2>T at positions z<5.0μm, therefore F points to the +z direction, while at position z>5.0μm, <S1>T<<S2>T and hence F points to the -z direction. At position z=5.0μm, F =0 because <S1>T=<S2>T. Therefore, particles can be steadily trapped at position z=5.0μm. According to our calculation, the scattering force is several orders of magnitude larger than the gradient force. So in the longitudinal axis the scattering force plays the key role for the trapping.

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 The scattering forces versus z on a particle with diameter of 20nm (a) and the normalized stiffness versus the absorption coefficient γ (b). Here D=400nm, L=10.0μm, r=0.21μm and φ=0. In (a), the four lines present the cases that γ=0.01/μm, 0.1/μm, 0.2/μm and 0.5/μm, respectively. In (b), z=5.0μm. The normalized condition is Cpr<S1>T/(2c/n2)=1.
shows the scattering force on a nanoparticle with diameter of 20nm versus z, while in the transverse plane, the center of the nanoparticle stays at r=0.21μm and φ=0. The diameter of the nano-fiber was taken as 400nm and the length of the nano-fiber L=10.0μm. The γ of the nano-fiber is taken as 0.01μm−1, 0.1μm−1, 0.2μm−1 and 0.5μm−1 respectively. The results prove that position z=5.0μm is the equilibrium position in the longitudinal direction. It also shows that scattering force reaches its maximum at each end of the nano-fiber, due to the propagation length difference of the two beams.

One can see that absorption coefficient causes the change in the scattering force curve profiles. In order to investigate the influence of γ on the trapping, herein we employ the parameter stiffness, defined as kf=∂F/∂z|F=0, which represents the trapping ability at the equilibrium position. kf has the similar meaning to the stiffness in an oscillating spring system. In this work, kf=Cpr<S1>Tγ(eγzeγ(Lz))/(2c/n2). Figure 2(b) shows the normalized stiffness versus the absorption coefficient γ with z=5.0μm, L=10.0μm, in which the normalized condition isCpr<S1>T/(2c/n2)=1. That the stiffness keeps negative means particles deviating from the equilibrium position always undergo the force which drives them back to the equilibrium position. So the trapping at z=5.0μm is stable trapping.

It is also worthy to mention that, in this work, the absorption coefficient γ we take is several orders larger than the one for the telecommunication fiber. From Fig. 2(a), one can see that for a large absorption, the scattering force is larger than the cases that the absorption is small, e.g. γ=0.01μm−1. Furthermore, according to Fig. 2(b), a large absorption means a better trapping stability. Under our calculation conditions, when γ=0.2μm−1, kf reaches its minimum and therefore most steady trapping is achieved.

Now we consider the trapping in the transverse plane of the nano-fiber, i.e. along the azimuth directionφ0 and the radius directionr0. In transverse plane, <S(r,t)>T=0 and hence scattering force is zero. Gradient force becomes the source of trapping.

Figures 3(a) and (b)
Fig. 3 The variation of gradient force acting on a particle versus φ (a) and r (b) Here D=400nm, z=5.0μm and γ=0.2/μm. In (a) r=0.21μm. In (b), φ=0.
shows the gradient force variation versus φ and r respectively. It can be seen that in azimuth direction there are two steady trapping positions, which are φ=0 and φ=π. It is parallel to the incident polarization direction. Steady position in azimuth direction can be shifted by changing the polarization state of the incident beam. In our calculation, the polarization of the two beams is assumed to parallel with Y-axis. When the polarization is rotated to X-axis, the electric field and hence the steady trapping position in azimuth direction will also rotate to π/2 and 3π/2. In the radius direction, seeing Fig. 3 (b), negative gradient force indicates the direction of the gradient force is –r-axis and the particle is always pushed towards the nano-fiber. If the placement of the nano-fiber is altered so that the gradient force in the r-axis can be used to cancellation the particle gravity, the particle will stay at a distance from the nano-fiber. However, it is unstable trapping. In contrast, the gradient force is more equal to transport particles in the radius direction. So in this work, it is called quasi 3-dimensioal trapping.

In the discussion above, the intensity of Beam I and II are assumed to be equal. Therefore, the equilibrium position of the particles along the longitudinal direction is in the middle of the nano-fiber. It is interesting that the equilibrium position can be altered if the intensities of the two beams are different. In this situation, the scattering force on one particle can be described as:

F=Cpr(<S1>Teγz<S2>Teγ(Lz))/(2c/n2)
(9)

Figure 4
Fig. 4 The scattering force versus position z on a particle with diameter of 20nm at r = 0.21μm and φ = 0. The steady position along the z-axis for the three situation: z=3.0μm (E1<E2), 5.0μm (E1=E2) and 7.0μm (E1>E2), where D=400nm, γ=0.2/μm, L=10.0μm.
shows the scattering forces versus z when the amplitude of Beam I and II are different. While E1<E2 represents E1=105V/m, E2=2.227 × 105V/m; E1=E2 represents E1=E2=105V/m and E1>E2 represents E1=105V/m, E2=4.49×104V/m. The equilibrium position for the three situations are z=3.0μm (E1<E2), 5.0μm (E1=E2) and 7.0μm (E1>E2), respectively. This also infers that the manipulation of the particles is very easy in our design, which is just altering the intensity of one incident beam.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have shown optical forces on a nanoparticle by using the evanescent field of two counter-propagating beams in an absorptive nano-fiber. Results show that the particles can be trapped steadily along the longitudinal direction and in the azimuth direction of the nano-fiber. By changing the intensity ratio or the polarization direction of two incident beams, optical manipulation along longitudinal or azimuth axis can be realized. In the radius direction, the particle is always pushed towards the nano-fiber. The unstable trapping can be achieved if the particle gravity is considered. The gradient force in the radius direction is more equal to transport particles. Therefore, it is called quasi 3-dimensional trapping.

In our analysis, due to the complex theoretical calculation of the energy coupling between the particles and the nano-fiber, we did not considered particles with large diameter, but chose them such that we could highlight the advantages of such a method where there is no restriction on the uniformity of the electromagnetic field over the particles. This type of analysis could be used in the future for the design of a more sophisticated system incorporating complex photonic elements.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Yanfeng Zhang for helpful discussion. This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (06TXTJJC13500), National Natural Science Foundation of China (60978020), Foundation of “973” Project (2007CB307002) and Key International S&T Cooperation Project (2005DFA10170).

References and links

1.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

K. Grujic, O. G. Hellesø, J. P. Hole, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(1), 1–7 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, S. Kuriakose, V. Garcés-Chávez, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3712–3726 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. H. Jonesa, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081113 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Viruses and Bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1486–1491 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, J. Cooper, and Z. J. Laczik, “Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5475–5480 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. L. Kien, J. Q Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

F. L. Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: Efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. Wang, X. Pan, and L. Tong, “Modeling of nanoparticle-induced Rayleigh–Gans scattering for nanofiber optical sensing,” Opt. Commun. 276(2), 293–297 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

P. Klocek, Handbook of infrared optical materials (Marcel Dekker, 1991).

24.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(020.7010) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser trapping
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

ToC Category:
Optical Trapping and Manipulation

History
Original Manuscript: December 23, 2009
Revised Manuscript: January 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: February 5, 2010
Published: March 5, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Lihua Zhao, Yudong Li, Jiwei Qi, Jingjun Xu, and Qian Sun, "Quasi 3-dimensional optical trapping by two counter-propagating beams in nano-fiber," Opt. Express 18, 5724-5729 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5724


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Grujic, O. G. Hellesø, J. P. Hole, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(1), 1–7 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, S. Kuriakose, V. Garcés-Chávez, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3712–3726 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. H. Jonesa, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081113 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Viruses and Bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1486–1491 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, J. Cooper, and Z. J. Laczik, “Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5475–5480 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. L. Kien, J. Q Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. L. Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: Efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Wang, X. Pan, and L. Tong, “Modeling of nanoparticle-induced Rayleigh–Gans scattering for nanofiber optical sensing,” Opt. Commun. 276(2), 293–297 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Klocek, Handbook of infrared optical materials (Marcel Dekker, 1991).
  24. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited