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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

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  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 7 — Apr. 26, 2010
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Effects of age on peripheral ocular aberrations

Ankit Mathur, David A. Atchison, and W. Neil Charman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 5840-5853 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005840


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Abstract

Abstract: On-axis monochromatic higher-order aberrations increase with age. Few studies have been made of peripheral refraction along the horizontal meridian of older eyes, and none of their off-axis higher-order aberrations. We measured wave aberrations over the central 42°x32° visual field for a 5mm pupil in 10 young and 7 older emmetropes. Patterns of peripheral refraction were similar in the two groups. Coma increased linearly with field angle at a significantly higher rate in older than in young emmetropes (−0.018±0.007 versus −0.006±0.002 µm/deg). Spherical aberration C 4 0 was almost constant over the measured field in both age groups and mean values across the field were significantly higher in older than in young emmetropes (+0.08±0.05 versus +0.02±0.04 µm). Total root-mean-square and higher-order aberrations increased more rapidly with field angle in the older emmetropes. However, the limits to monochromatic peripheral retinal image quality are largely determined by the second-order aberrations, which do not change markedly with age, and under normal conditions the relative importance of the increased higher-order aberrations in older eyes is lessened by the reduction in pupil diameter with age. Therefore it is unlikely that peripheral visual performance deficits observed in normal older individuals are primarily attributable to the increased impact of higher-order aberration.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

It is well known that axial visual performance as assessed, for example, by contrast sensitivity [1

1. C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, and D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23(7), 689–699 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, “Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes,” Vision Res. 30(4), 541–547 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], visual acuity [4

4. D. B. Elliott, K. C. Yang, and D. Whitaker, “Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(3), 186–191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or other criteria [5

5. D. G. Pitts, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: dark adaptation, visual acuity, stereopsis and brightness contrast.,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, and K. Dismukes, eds. (A.R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 131–159.

] declines with age. There is no doubt that optical factors, including increases in both monochromatic aberration [6

6. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(7), 1656–1662 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and intraocular light scattering [7

7. T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S598–S602 (2002). [PubMed]

, 16

16. G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye's optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(7), 1417–1424 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30(5), 699–707 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] play important roles in this decline, although neural factors are also involved [18

18. S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9(2), 1–16 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. All of the individual axial, higher-order Zernike aberrations, together with the total root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error, tend to increase with age. Mean axial refractive errors show small changes of the order of 1 D throughout life: a slow drift towards myopia up to the age of about 30 is followed by a gradual movement in the hyperopic direction [19

19. F. J. Slataper, “Age norms of refraction and vision,” Arch. Ophthal. 43, 466–481 (1950).

23

23. F. A. Young, and G. A. Leary, “Chapter 2. Refractive error in relation to the development of the eye,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1991), pp. 29–44.

].

Less widely studied has been the influence of age on visual and optical performance in the peripheral visual field. This is unfortunate, since many visual tasks, including safe locomotion and driving, depend on efficient peripheral vision. While a number of neural factors may contribute to the reduced ability of older individuals to perform tasks involving peripheral vision (e.g [24

24. J. M. Wood, “Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit,” Hum. Factors 44(3), 482–494 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28

28. R. Weale, A biography of the eye: development, growth, age (H K Lewis, London, 1982).

].), it is reasonable to postulate that the quality of the image on the peripheral retina might have a significant influence. Studies in which the state of focus is varied in the peripheral retina show that, for normal subjects, changes in spherical focus have little effect on resolution tasks for peripheral angles in the range 10-60 deg [29

29. F. N. Low, “Studies on peripheral visual acuity,” Science 97(2530), 586–587 (1943). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35

35. L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], although they may in patients with central field defects [34

34. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In contrast, various studies show that detection of pattern, movement, and flicker may be markedly affected by changes in focus of as little as 0.5 D, even at eccentricities of 20-30 degrees (e.g [33

33. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]

, 36

36. L. Ronchi, “Absolute threshold before and after correction of oblique-ray astigmatism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(12), 1705–1709 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41

41. R. S. Anderson, D. R. McDowell, and F. A. Ennis, “Effect of localized defocus on detection thresholds for different sized targets in the fovea and periphery,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(1), 60–63 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].). Thus in many real-world visual tasks, peripheral image quality is likely to be of some importance; it is possible that aberrations other than defocus may be of significance here.

The age variation in refractive error across the horizontal visual field has been measured. Although early work showed marked (and conflicting) age differences [42

42. M. Millodot, “Peripheral refraction in aphakic eyes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(9), 586–589 (1984). [PubMed]

, 43

43. C. T. Scialfa, H. W. Leibowitz, and K. W. Gish, “Age differences in peripheral refractive error,” Psychol. Aging 4(3), 372–375 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], more recent transverse population studies suggest that the changes are small in people with similar refraction ranges [13

13. D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 44

44. D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, S. D. White, and A. M. Griffiths, “Influence of age on peripheral refraction,” Vision Res. 45(6), 715–720 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], although there appears to be a systematic change in the nasal/temporal asymmetry, with this reducing in the case of astigmatism at a rate of 1.1°/decade [13

13. D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Longitudinal measurements on a handful of eyes suggest that the slow change in mean sphere with age that occurs on axis also occurs across the field [45

45. W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings, “Longitudinal changes in peripheral refraction with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(5), 447–455 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. No studies have been carried out to compare peripheral higher-order aberrations in older and younger individuals. We have therefore measured refraction and wavefront aberrations across the central fields of groups of young and older emmetropes.

2. Methods

Seventeen emmetropic volunteers were recruited and were segregated into 2 groups based on their age. Group 1 contained 10 young emmetropes (mean and standard deviation of spherical equivalent: +0.11 D ± 0.50 D; mean age: 25 ± 3 years; age range: 20-30 years), and group 2 contained 7 older presbyopic emmetropes (mean and standard deviation of spherical equivalent: +0.09 D ± 0.60 D; mean age: 63 ± 6 years; age range: 50-71 years). Subject numbers were limited by the constraints of measurement time (2 hours/subject) and analysis time (8 hours/subject). Subjects were screened for any ocular pathology. All the subjects had visual acuity better than 6/6 and < 0.75 D of astigmatism. Right eyes were assessed, while left eyes were occluded during measurement. The same young emmetropes were also used in a study comparing their aberrations to those of young myopes [46

46. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and W. N. Charman, “Myopia and peripheral ocular aberrations,” J. Vis. 9, 1–12 (2009). [PubMed]

].

Wavefront aberration was assessed across the central 42 x 32 degrees of visual field using a COAS-HD Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (Wavefront Sciences Inc., Albuquerque, USA), (see [47

47. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and D. H. Scott, “Ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 863–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], for details). Measuring wavelength was 840 nm, and results were converted to correspond to a wavelength of 555 nm. Fixation was moved successively between each of a matrix of 38 targets produced on a projection screen at 1.2 m from the eye. No mydriatics or cycloplegics were used and the lighting conditions were such that during the measurements the minor diameters of the off-axis elliptical pupils always exceeded 5 mm, as estimated by COAS-HD (some potential subjects whose pupils did not satisfy this condition could not be used in the study). Two recordings were made at each field location and the wavefront data were analyzed to give Zernike coefficients in standard format [48

48. ANSI, “American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Ophthalmics - Methods for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” ANSI Z80.28–2004 (2004).

, 49

49. ISO, “International Organization for Standardization. Ophthalmic optics and instruments–Reporting aberrations of the human eye,” ISO 24157, 2008 (2008).

] for a 5 mm pupil and the vector components of refraction using Zernike coefficients up to the 6th order [50

50. D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. Neil Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2963–2973 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 51

51. D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. N. Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2467 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The wave aberration coefficients of two sets of measurements were averaged. Typically the higher-order root-mean-squared (HORMS) difference between the two measurements at any point was < 0.03 µm.

Since the fixation targets were at 1.2 m, the younger subjects were accommodating slightly (accommodative demand 0.83 D). The accommodative response was taken as the difference between the axial mean sphere M measured with the internal target and fogging system of the COAS instrument, and the overall mean sphere for the 2 fixation points closest to the visual axis along the vertical field meridian. The mean response was 0.44 ± 0.49 D. The effect of this accommodation on aberrations is likely to be negligible [46

46. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and W. N. Charman, “Myopia and peripheral ocular aberrations,” J. Vis. 9, 1–12 (2009). [PubMed]

]. None of the older emmetropes had measurable accommodation (mean response −0.02 ± 0.20 D).

Corneal topography for each subject was measured using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Medmont International Pvt. Limited, Australia). The pupil center was used as the reference point. Anterior corneal vertex radius of curvature R and asphericity Q were estimated from corneal height data across 36 meridians for a 6 mm corneal diameter, using least-squares fitting and the equation X2+Y2+(1+Q)Z22ZR=0,where the Z axis is the line of sight. The mean estimates from 4 topographic images were used for further analysis.

3. Results

The refraction components and 3rd to 4th order Zernike aberration coefficients were analyzed by repeated measures analyses of variance for the between-group factor of age and the within-group factor of field position (38 positions). Table 1

Table 1. The p values of repeated measures ANOVA for refraction components, Zernike aberration coefficients and root-mean-squared aberrations for the between-subjects variable of age group and within-subjects factor of field position. The defocus coefficient is relative to its central field value for each subject. Asterisks indicate significant effects.

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shows the results. The refraction components are oblique astigmatism J45, relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) which is the change in M relative to axial M, and with/against the rule astigmatism J180. Results for the higher-order root-mean-squared aberrations (HORMS) and the total root-mean-squared aberrations except for defocus (Total RMS, i.e.square root of HORMS and astigmatism) are also shown. Age had significant effects on J180, C22,C31, and C40. Field position had significant effects on all refraction components and on all coefficients except forC42,C40, and C44. There were significant age-field position interactions for most terms.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Mean refractive components (a) oblique astigmatism J45, (b) spherical equivalent M relative to the axial value (i.e. relative peripheral refractive error, RPRE) (c) with/against the rule astigmatism J180 in A) young emmetropes and B) older emmetropes across the visual field. (C) shows the differences B − A between the mean values in the two age groups (note that scales differ from those in A and B). The color scales represent the magnitude of each refractive component in diopters and are same for a given refractive component and for both groups. S, I, N and T represent superior, inferior, nasal and temporal visual fields. Pupil size 5 mm.
shows the mean refractive components: (a) J45, (b) RPRE and (c) J180 for A) young emmetropes and B) older emmetropes. As found by Mathur et al. [47

47. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and D. H. Scott, “Ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 863–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the astigmatic components J45 (Aa, Ba,) and J180 (Ac, Bc) increased quadratically along the 135°-315° meridian and 90°-270° meridians, respectively, and decreased along the meridians perpendicular to these. This implies that, locally, the astigmatism tended to be oriented along the visual field meridian. For both groups, RPRE moved in the negative direction in the periphery, but this change was less pronounced for the older emmetropes than for the younger group (compare Ab, Bb). Note that for both age groups the variations in the refractive components tend to be more symmetrical about a field point approximately 5 degrees temporal rather than about the visual axis, presumably because the approximate optical axis does not coincide with the visual axis [52

52. W. Neil Charman and D. A. Atchison, “Decentred optical axes and aberrations along principal visual field meridians,” Vision Res. 49(14), 1869–1876 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Figure 1(c) shows the differences between the mean results for the older and younger groups (i.e. B − A). The differences are modest. Those in the J45 astigmatic components (Ca) appear to have a maximum linear variation along the inferio-nasal to superio-temporal direction (305°-125° meridian) at the rate of 0.013 D/degree and almost no variation along the perpendicular, inferio-temporal to superio-nasal (215°-35°) field meridian. Age did not significantly affect mean J45, but there was significant interaction between age and field position (Table 1). The differences in the J180 component appear to have quasi-linear variation in the approximately vertical inferior to superior (285°-105° meridian) direction at the rate of 0.011 D/degree, with almost no change along the horizontal meridian. The differences in RPRE tended to be generally positive, amounting to around +0.25 D at field angles of about 20°.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Higher order aberration elliptical wavefront maps at each visual field location for (a) young emmetropes (b) older emmetropes and (c) the difference (b)–(a). Third to sixth Zernike aberrations are included. The minor axis of the elliptical wavefront maps is cosine of visual field angle times the major axis. I, N, S and T represent inferior, nasal, superior and temporal visual fields. Axial pupil diameter 5 mm.
shows the mean higher-order wavefront maps across the pupil at each visual field location for (A) young emmetropes and (B) older emmetropes. The combination of horizontal and vertical coma dominated across the visual field of both age groups. Coma increased in magnitude from the center to the periphery of the visual field and changed orientation with the visual field meridian. The increase in coma was most prominent in the older emmetropes, as is evident in the difference plots B − A [Fig. 2(c)]. As for the astigmatism coefficients in Fig. 1, the maps are symmetrical about a field point approximately 5 degrees into the temporal visual field.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Individual higher-order aberration coefficients across the visual field for A) young emmetropes, B) older emmetropes and C) the difference between B and A. (a) trefoil coefficient C33, (b) vertical coma coefficient C31, (c) horizontal coma coefficient C31, (d) spherical aberration coefficient C40, (e) higher-order root-mean-square aberration (HORMS) and (f) total root-mean-square aberration (Total RMS). The color scales represent the magnitude of aberration coefficient in micrometers (μm) and are the same for a given aberration and both groups. Pupil size is 5 mm.
shows some mean higher-order aberration coefficients, HORMS and Total RMS for the 2 groups across the visual field, and the differences between the groups. Other higher-order coefficients are not shown as they were small in magnitude.

Oblique trefoil C33 was more positive in the superior field than in the inferior field (Aa, Ba). The vertical C31 (Ab, Bb) and horizontal C31 coma (Ac, Bc) coefficients were the higher-order coefficients showing the most prominent changes across the field: vertical coma C31 increased linearly from the superior to the inferior visual field and horizontal coma C31 increased from the nasal to the temporal visual field, in both cases at faster rates for the older emmetropes. For both groups, spherical aberration C40 (Ad, Bd) did not vary across the visual field. Mean spherical aberration was slightly positive (0.02 µm) in the young emmetropic group and more positive in the older emmetropes (0.08 µm) (Cd). HORMS (Ae, Be) and Total RMS (Af, Bf) showed approximately quadratic rates of change across the field with the minimum approximately at the center of the field: rates of change with field angle were higher for the older emmetropes (Ce, Cf).

As shown in Fig. 3(c), among the mean higher-order aberration coefficients, coma and spherical aberration differed most between the groups. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Vertical coma coefficient C31 and horizontal coma coefficient C31, respectively, along vertical and horizontal visual field meridians for young and older emmetropes. Different symbols represent different subjects. As there were no measurements along the horizontal visual field, horizontal coma for the horizontal visual field was obtained by averaging results at vertical field angles of ± 3.3°.
shows individual vertical coma coefficients C31 and horizontal coma coefficients C31 along the vertical and horizontal visual field meridians, respectively, for the young and older emmetropes. The slopes for the coma coefficients (µm/degree) varied significantly between the groups (Table 2

Table 2. Mean values of the rate of change of coma with field angle and of spherical aberration across the visual field in the two age groups (coma slopes are averages for vertical and horizontal meridians).

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). Vertical and horizontal coma slopes were more than 3 times greater for older emmetropes than for young emmetropes (independent samples t-tests, p ≤ 0.005). Note again that coma values approximated to zero around the center of the field and that the slopes along the horizontal and vertical field meridians were very similar, implying approximate symmetry of coma about the axis. The mean spherical aberration C40 across the field was significantly higher for older emmetropes than for young emmetropes (Table 2, independent samples t-test, p < 0.001).

The mean corneal shape data are shown in Table 3

Table 3. Means and SDs of the characteristics of the anterior corneas of the different age groups.

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. Anterior corneal radii were similar but older emmetropes showed significantly greater negative asphericity than the young emmetropes (independent samples t-test, p < 0.02).

4. Discussion

As in earlier studies [13

13. D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 44

44. D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, S. D. White, and A. M. Griffiths, “Influence of age on peripheral refraction,” Vision Res. 45(6), 715–720 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], these results indicate that the patterns of peripheral refraction do not undergo any major changes with age (Fig. 1). There were, however, substantially higher levels of some peripheral aberration coefficients and of total higher-order wave aberrations in the older subjects. Are these optical differences great enough to produce marked relative degradation in the visual performance of the old as compared to the young?

When considering the overall effect on peripheral vision, it must be remembered that the retinal image will be degraded by both the second-order aberrations of defocus and astigmatism and the higher-order aberrations. For both age groups, the former normally tend to be more important over the measured field. However, the effect of the greater levels of higher-order aberration in older eyes may still be detectable. This is illustrated in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 False-color representations of monochromatic point spread functions (PSFs) at different horizontal visual field angles for young emmetropes and older emmetropes. Mean aberration coefficients for the groups have been used to derive PSFs. The Zernike defocus coefficient has been altered for each case so that it is zero at fixation for each age group. The color scales have been normalized for each point spread function and the numbers under the functions are the Strehl intensity ratios. As there were no actual horizontal positions, the functions were determined from the mean coefficients at 3.3° above and below the horizontal visual field meridian. The point spread functions were produced with simulations in the optical design package Zemax.
which shows theoretical monochromatic point-spread functions at several positions along the horizontal field meridian for eyes having levels of aberration corresponding to the mean values for the younger and older age groups. The pupil diameters are 5 mm in all cases and spherical defocus has been manipulated so that it is zero for the axial case. Although image quality falls with field angle in both age groups, the degrading effects of off-axis coma appear to be noticeably worse in the older eyes, except at −14° in the temporal visual field. Note that the images are asymmetrical about the axis, with images in the temporal field (positive angles) being noticeably worse than the corresponding images in the nasal field. Since average data has been used, images in individual eyes may be substantially worse than those of Fig. 5 due to the effects of those aberrations which are randomly distributed about a mean of zero. The additional effects of increased intra-ocular scatter in the older eyes will serve to increase these age differences in image quality at constant pupil diameter.

While this suggests that peripheral image quality is worse in the older eye, two effects tend to reduce any differences in normal life. Chromatic aberration, both longitudinal and transverse, causes additional blurring effects which are independent of age [53

53. P. A. Howarth, X. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, and L. N. Thibos, “Does the chromatic aberration of the eye vary with age?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(12), 2087–2092 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 54

54. A. Morrell, H. D. Whitefoot, and W. N. Charman, “Ocular chromatic aberration and age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 385–390 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]: these tend to partially mask the effects of the monochromatic aberrations. Moreover, as noted by Calver et al. [9

9. R. I. Calver, M. J. Cox, and D. B. Elliott, “Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(9), 2069–2078 (1999). [CrossRef]

], under normal conditions the reduced pupil diameter of the older eye tends to restrict the effect of any increase in higher-order aberration, although it cannot reduce the effect of increased intra-ocular light scatter. Overall, it seems reasonable to suggest that, although peripheral image quality may be slightly worse, any marked reductions in visual performance for tasks in the peripheral visual field that are observed in older, visually-normal individuals are unlikely to be due to changes in optical imagery but are more likely to be neural in origin.

Considering now the results in more detail, the quasi-linear form of the variation in the differences in the astigmatism components across the visual field (Fig. 1Ca and Cc) is of interest. The components for each age group varied approximately parabolically with field angle but their centre of symmetry was not exactly on the visual axis. The difference between two parabolic variations which are shifted laterally with respect to one another was a linear variation. Thus, the difference data may suggest that the position of the best “optical axis”, or centre of optical symmetry, shifts slightly with respect to the visual axis with age [13

13. D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 52

52. W. Neil Charman and D. A. Atchison, “Decentred optical axes and aberrations along principal visual field meridians,” Vision Res. 49(14), 1869–1876 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Thus while modeling in terms only of corneal shape change has a partial success in explaining the differences in coma across the field, it fails to explain the observed behavior of spherical aberration. This implies, not surprisingly, that additional lenticular and other factors must contribute to the aberrational differences between the groups.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Neil Charman was supported by Australian Research Council International Linkage Fellowship LX0881907.

References and links

1.

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2.

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3.

D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, “Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes,” Vision Res. 30(4), 541–547 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. B. Elliott, K. C. Yang, and D. Whitaker, “Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(3), 186–191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. G. Pitts, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: dark adaptation, visual acuity, stereopsis and brightness contrast.,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, and K. Dismukes, eds. (A.R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 131–159.

6.

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(7), 1656–1662 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S598–S602 (2002). [PubMed]

8.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999). [PubMed]

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J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1390–1395 (2001). [PubMed]

12.

R. A. Applegate, W. J. Donnelly III, J. D. Marsack, D. E. Koenig, and K. Pesudovs, “Three-dimensional relationship between high-order root-mean-square wavefront error, pupil diameter, and aging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 578–587 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Plainis and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular monochromatic aberration statistics in a large emmetropic population,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(4), 759–772 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye's optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(7), 1417–1424 (1995). [CrossRef]

17.

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30(5), 699–707 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9(2), 1–16 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

F. J. Slataper, “Age norms of refraction and vision,” Arch. Ophthal. 43, 466–481 (1950).

20.

H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

H. Saunders, “A longitudinal study of the age-dependence of human ocular refraction--I. Age-dependent changes in the equivalent sphere,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 39–46 (1986). [PubMed]

22.

H. C. Fledelius and M. Stubgaard, “Changes in refraction and corneal curvature during growth and adult life,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 64(5), 487–491 (1986). [CrossRef]

23.

F. A. Young, and G. A. Leary, “Chapter 2. Refractive error in relation to the development of the eye,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1991), pp. 29–44.

24.

J. M. Wood, “Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit,” Hum. Factors 44(3), 482–494 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. M. Wood and M. A. Bullimore, “Changes in the lower displacement limit for motion with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15(1), 31–36 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

K. Ball, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, D. L. Roenker, and J. R. Bruni, “Visual attention problems as a predictor of vehicle crashes in older drivers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(11), 3110–3123 (1993). [PubMed]

27.

D. W. Kline, T. J. B. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: The problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

28.

R. Weale, A biography of the eye: development, growth, age (H K Lewis, London, 1982).

29.

F. N. Low, “Studies on peripheral visual acuity,” Science 97(2530), 586–587 (1943). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Int J Ophthalmol 173, 128–135 (1976). [CrossRef]

31.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual acuity,” Vision Res. 15(12), 1357–1362 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15(3), 351–353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]

34.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

L. Ronchi, “Absolute threshold before and after correction of oblique-ray astigmatism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(12), 1705–1709 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds. A method for determining a quantitative estimate of retinal contour,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 240–251 (1962). [PubMed]

38.

H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, “Peripheral motion detection and refractive error,” Science 177(4055), 1207–1208 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

J. A. Jennings and W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21(4), 445–455 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

R. S. Anderson, D. R. McDowell, and F. A. Ennis, “Effect of localized defocus on detection thresholds for different sized targets in the fovea and periphery,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(1), 60–63 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

M. Millodot, “Peripheral refraction in aphakic eyes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(9), 586–589 (1984). [PubMed]

43.

C. T. Scialfa, H. W. Leibowitz, and K. W. Gish, “Age differences in peripheral refractive error,” Psychol. Aging 4(3), 372–375 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, S. D. White, and A. M. Griffiths, “Influence of age on peripheral refraction,” Vision Res. 45(6), 715–720 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

45.

W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings, “Longitudinal changes in peripheral refraction with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(5), 447–455 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46.

A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and W. N. Charman, “Myopia and peripheral ocular aberrations,” J. Vis. 9, 1–12 (2009). [PubMed]

47.

A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and D. H. Scott, “Ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 863–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

48.

ANSI, “American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Ophthalmics - Methods for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” ANSI Z80.28–2004 (2004).

49.

ISO, “International Organization for Standardization. Ophthalmic optics and instruments–Reporting aberrations of the human eye,” ISO 24157, 2008 (2008).

50.

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. Neil Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2963–2973 (2007). [CrossRef]

51.

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. N. Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2467 (2008). [CrossRef]

52.

W. Neil Charman and D. A. Atchison, “Decentred optical axes and aberrations along principal visual field meridians,” Vision Res. 49(14), 1869–1876 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

53.

P. A. Howarth, X. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, and L. N. Thibos, “Does the chromatic aberration of the eye vary with age?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(12), 2087–2092 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

54.

A. Morrell, H. D. Whitefoot, and W. N. Charman, “Ocular chromatic aberration and age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 385–390 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

55.

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vis. 8(4), 1–20 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

56.

H.-L. Liou and N. A. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(8), 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

57.

G. P. Smith, P. B. Bedggood, R. P. Ashman, M. B. Daaboul, and A. P. Metha, “Exploring ocular aberrations with a schematic human eye model,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(5), 330–340 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

58.

A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8), 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(330.7322) Vision, color, and visual optics : Visual optics, accommodation
(330.7323) Vision, color, and visual optics : Visual optics, aging changes

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 17, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: February 22, 2010
Published: March 9, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ankit Mathur, David A. Atchison, and W. Neil Charman, "Effects of age on peripheral ocular aberrations," Opt. Express 18, 5840-5853 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5840


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References

  1. C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, and D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23(7), 689–699 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. B. Elliott, “Contrast sensitivity decline with ageing: a neural or optical phenomenon?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7(4), 415–419 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, “Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes,” Vision Res. 30(4), 541–547 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. B. Elliott, K. C. Yang, and D. Whitaker, “Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(3), 186–191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. G. Pitts, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: dark adaptation, visual acuity, stereopsis and brightness contrast,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, and K. Dismukes, eds., (A.R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 131–159.
  6. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(7), 1656–1662 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S598–S602 (2002). [PubMed]
  8. T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999). [PubMed]
  9. R. I. Calver, M. J. Cox, and D. B. Elliott, “Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(9), 2069–2078 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Marcos, “Are changes in ocular aberrations with age a significant problem for refractive surgery?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S572–S578 (2002). [PubMed]
  11. J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1390–1395 (2001). [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Applegate, W. J. Donnelly, J. D. Marsack, D. E. Koenig, and K. Pesudovs, “Three-dimensional relationship between high-order root-mean-square wavefront error, pupil diameter, and aging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 578–587 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Atchison and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations of emmetropic subjects at different ages,” Vision Res. 48(21), 2224–2231 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Plainis and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular monochromatic aberration statistics in a large emmetropic population,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(4), 759–772 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye's optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(7), 1417–1424 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30(5), 699–707 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9(2), 1–16 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. J. Slataper, “Age norms of refraction and vision,” Arch. Ophthal. 43, 466–481 (1950).
  20. H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Saunders, “A longitudinal study of the age-dependence of human ocular refraction--I. Age-dependent changes in the equivalent sphere,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 39–46 (1986). [PubMed]
  22. H. C. Fledelius and M. Stubgaard, “Changes in refraction and corneal curvature during growth and adult life,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 64(5), 487–491 (1986). [CrossRef]
  23. F. A. Young, and G. A. Leary, “Chapter 2. Refractive error in relation to the development of the eye,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1991), pp. 29–44.
  24. J. M. Wood, “Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit,” Hum. Factors 44(3), 482–494 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. M. Wood and M. A. Bullimore, “Changes in the lower displacement limit for motion with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15(1), 31–36 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Ball, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, D. L. Roenker, and J. R. Bruni, “Visual attention problems as a predictor of vehicle crashes in older drivers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(11), 3110–3123 (1993). [PubMed]
  27. D. W. Kline, T. J. B. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: The problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).
  28. R. Weale, A biography of the eye: development, growth, age, (H K Lewis, London, 1982).
  29. F. N. Low, “Studies on peripheral visual acuity,” Science 97(2530), 586–587 (1943). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Int J Ophthalmol 173, 128–135 (1976). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual acuity,” Vision Res. 15(12), 1357–1362 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15(3), 351–353 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997). [PubMed]
  34. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. Ronchi, “Absolute threshold before and after correction of oblique-ray astigmatism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(12), 1705–1709 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds. A method for determining a quantitative estimate of retinal contour,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 240–251 (1962). [PubMed]
  38. H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, “Peripheral motion detection and refractive error,” Science 177(4055), 1207–1208 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. J. A. Jennings and W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21(4), 445–455 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. S. Anderson, D. R. McDowell, and F. A. Ennis, “Effect of localized defocus on detection thresholds for different sized targets in the fovea and periphery,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(1), 60–63 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. M. Millodot, “Peripheral refraction in aphakic eyes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(9), 586–589 (1984). [PubMed]
  43. C. T. Scialfa, H. W. Leibowitz, and K. W. Gish, “Age differences in peripheral refractive error,” Psychol. Aging 4(3), 372–375 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, S. D. White, and A. M. Griffiths, “Influence of age on peripheral refraction,” Vision Res. 45(6), 715–720 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. W. N. Charman and J. A. Jennings, “Longitudinal changes in peripheral refraction with age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(5), 447–455 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and W. N. Charman, “Myopia and peripheral ocular aberrations,” J. Vis. 9, 1–12 (2009). [PubMed]
  47. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and D. H. Scott, “Ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 863–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. ANSI, “American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Ophthalmics - Methods for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” ANSI Z80.28–2004 (2004).
  49. ISO, “International Organization for Standardization. Ophthalmic optics and instruments–Reporting aberrations of the human eye,” ISO 24157, 2008 (2008).
  50. D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. Neil Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2963–2973 (2007). [CrossRef]
  51. D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and W. N. Charman, “Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2467 (2008). [CrossRef]
  52. W. Neil Charman and D. A. Atchison, “Decentred optical axes and aberrations along principal visual field meridians,” Vision Res. 49(14), 1869–1876 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. P. A. Howarth, X. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, and L. N. Thibos, “Does the chromatic aberration of the eye vary with age?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(12), 2087–2092 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. A. Morrell, H. D. Whitefoot, and W. N. Charman, “Ocular chromatic aberration and age,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 385–390 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vis. 8(4), 1–20 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. H.-L. Liou and N. A. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(8), 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]
  57. G. P. Smith, P. B. Bedggood, R. P. Ashman, M. B. Daaboul, and A. P. Metha, “Exploring ocular aberrations with a schematic human eye model,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(5), 330–340 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8), 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

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