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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 7 — Apr. 26, 2010
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Single camera spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using offset B-scan modulation

Chuanmao Fan and Gang Yao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 7281-7287 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.007281


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Abstract

We report a simple implementation to acquire spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) using a single camera. By combining a dual-delay assembly in the reference arm and offset B-scan in the sample arm, the orthogonal vertical- and horizontal-polarized images were acquired in parallel and spatially separated by a fixed distance in the full range image space. The two orthogonal polarization images were recombined to calculate the intensity, retardance and fast-axis images. This system was easy to implement and capable of acquiring high-speed in vivo 3D polarization-sensitive OCT images.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) [1

1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence Tomography – Principles and Applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003). [CrossRef]

] is a powerful non-invasive optical imaging technique that can acquire high resolution depth-resolved images in highly scattering tissue specimen. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) [3

3. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992). [CrossRef]

5

5. S. L. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 350–358 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] enables polarization-dependent detection in OCT and can provide additional imaging contrast such as retardance and fast-axis orientation in birefringence samples. PSOCT has been successfully applied in a variety of biomedical applications such as burn depth estimation in skin [6

6. B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and ophthalmology [8

8. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, J. F. de Boer, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The recent development of PSOCT has been shifted to spectral domain implementation [11

11. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] due to its superior speed and sensitivity that are critical for in vivo three dimensional applications.

In order to extract polarization properties in a birefringence sample, at least two sample images need to be acquired with two orthogonal detection polarization states [9

9. C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Zhao and Izatt [11

11. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] implemented a “single-camera sequential-scan-based” PSOCT system by using an electro-optic modulator to change the detection polarization between sequential scans. To further improve imaging speed, several “single-shot” PSOCT implementations have been developed. Baumann et al [13

13. B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] used a polarization-sensitive beam splitter to direct the horizontal- and vertical-polarized components to two adjacent halves of a single spectrometer camera. Cense et al [14

14. B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] reported a similar system where a Wollaston prism in the detection arm was used to direct the two polarization components to a single camera. Fan et al [15

15. C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] later reported a different configuration that separated the two orthogonal polarization components in the reference arm instead of the detection arm. The two orthogonally polarized images were mapped into the two opposite sides in the full range image space relative to the zero delay line. This implementation used a common interference path in the detection arm and thus avoided the strict spatial alignment required when separating two polarization images in the detection arm. However, it required an extra phase modulation in the reference arm [15

15. C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we presented an improved implementation over Fan et al’s [15

15. C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] original approach by eliminating the extra phase modulation components in the reference arm. Instead, we utilized the phase modulation provided by a galvo scanner during offset B-scans that was previously used [16

16. B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3453–3455 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to achieve full range spectral domain OCT. This new implementation provided a simple solution to acquire high-speed polarization sensitive OCT images.

2. Methods

2.1 system setup

A schematic diagram of the proposed PSOCT system is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram of the PSOCT system. SLD: superluminescent diode, C: collimator, P: polarizer to generate vertically polarized light. BS: non polarization beam splitter. ND: neutral density filter. QWP: quarter-wave plate at 45°. M: reference mirrors. L: lens. OL: objective lens (f = 88mm). VPHTG: Volume Phase Holography Transmission Grating (1200lines/mm). CCD: line scan camera.
. An 844nm SLD with Δλ = 46.8nm (SLD-371-HP1, Superlum, Russia) was used as the light source. The incident laser power on the sample surface was 1.3mW. The incident light was collimated and vertically polarized (V) by a polarizer after passing through an optical isolator. At the reference arm, the light was split into two parts by a non-polarized beam splitter (BS). At one arm, the vertically polarized (V) light was directly reflected by a mirror (M); while at the other arm, a quarter-wave plate (QWP) was placed at 45° to convert the back reflected light into a horizontally polarized (H) light. The H- and V-polarized reference light was recombined by the same beam splitter (BS). In the sample arm, another QWP placed at 45° converted the V-polarized incident light into circularly polarized light. The incident light was reflected at a point slightly deviated from the pivot axis at the x-y galvanometer scanner and redirected onto an objective lens (OL). The backscattered light from the sample interfered with the horizontal- and vertical-polarized reference light separately, and were coupled into a custom designed spectrometer via a single mode fiber. The coherence spectra were captured by a line scan CCD camera with 1024 pixels (AVIIVA SM2, e2v, France) and acquired through a frame grabber (PCIe-1427, National Instruments, USA). The image acquisition speed was 50k A-line/s.

The control signals are illustrated in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Waveforms for system synchronization. Ch. 0: timing base camera trigger; Ch.1: B-scan signal; Ch.2: C-scan signal.
. A digital pulse train (Ch.0) was generated from a DAQ card (PCI-6221, National Instruments, USA) to trigger the CCD line by line. This pulse train also served as the sample clock for generating saw tooth signals to control the scanner. Two voltage signals (Ch.1 and Ch.2) were used to drive the x- and y-axis galvanometer scanners to acquire the B- and C-scans, respectively.

2.2 signal reconstruction and processing

After obtaining Fourier transforms [Eq. (3)] on every wave number k, the resulting H- and V-polarized spectra were mirror-symmetric with zero frequency. A band-pass filter was applied to select the single side spatial spectrum. An inverse Fourier transform was then used to obtain the complex spectrum. The longitudinal (to the wave number k) Fourier transform was carried out on every calculated complex spectrum. Full range complex image was obtained with corresponding complex conjugate mirror image removed, leaving two images adjacent to each other by a distance of 2d. These two images represent these formed in horizontal and vertical polarization channels:

A(z,x)=AH(z+d,x)exp(iΨH(z.x))+AV(zd,x)exp(iΨV(z.x)).
(5)

To calculate polarization parameters, one image was shifted by a distance of 2d to coincide with the other. The intensity I image can be calculated as I=AH(z,x)2+AV(z,x)2. The retardance δ and fast-axis θ images were calculated using established method [3

3. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992). [CrossRef]

,9

9. C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as:

δ=tan1(AV(z,x)AH(z,x)),θ=ψH(z,x)ψV(z,x)+π2.
(6)

The ranges of retardation and fast axis were [0°, 90°] and [0°, 180°] respectively.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 3
Fig. 3 An illustration of the OCT image processing. (a) The raw B-scan spectra; (b) Pre-processed spectra after removing the DC component; (c) The imaginary (I) and real (R) parts of Fourier transformed (on lateral position x) spectra. The white boxes represent the band-pass filter. (d)The complex interferogram after inverse Fourier transform of (c). The final amplitude (e) and phase (f) of the depth-resolve image were calculated by Fourier transform of (d).
demonstrated the image processing procedure described in the last section. The acquired original B-scan OCT spectra is shown in Fig. 3(a). Figure 3(b) was obtained after removing the DC components in the raw data. After Fourier transform on x, the resulting complex spectra were shown in Fig. 3(c). Both real (R) and imagery (I) parts of the result are shown. The spectrum was modulated to be symmetric to the center zero frequency. The complex spectrum was band-pass filtered to select the single-sided spectrum. Such filtering also helped remove low frequency fixed pattern noise in the system. The Fig. 3(d) was computed by applying inverse Fourier transform to Fig. 3(c). Finally, applying Fourier transform against the wave number k produced the analytical OCT images where the H- and V-polarized components were adjacent to each other by a displacement of 2d. After shifting one image to coincide with the other orthogonally polarized component, the intensity and retardance images can be obtained from the amplitude image in Fig. 3(e) and the fast axis image can be calculated using the phase image [Fig. 3(f)] according to Eq. (6).

During image processing, the depth-resolved signals were corrected for the sensitivity falling-off with depth whose profile approximately approached a Sinc function corresponding to Fourier transforms of the rectangular pixel sampling on the interferogram. The raw OCT signal was corrected by multiplying the inverse of the sensitivity curve. The present system had a maximum sensitivity of 104.5 dB at the zero delay line (focal plane) and minimum sensitivity of 75.5 dB at an imaging depth of 2.6 mm. The extinction ratio of complex conjugate suppression as defined in [16

16. B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was measured as 29.6 dB.

To validate the system, a waveplate (retardance of 67.5° at 844nm) placed in front of a mirror was used as the sample. The fast axis and retardance were measured while rotating the waveplate from 0° to 170°. As shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The measured optical axis and retardance of a waveplate in front of a mirror. Three sets of data were measured when the mirror was placed at 0, 0.9 and 1.8mm from the focal plane.
, three sets of data were measured when mirror was positioned at z1 = 0 mm, z2 = 0.9 mm and z3 = 1.8 mm from the focal plane (zero delay line). The measured axis orientation had good agreement with preset values with errors of [-2.5°, 1.5°], [-4.3°, 1.2°] and [-3.4°, 3.1°] at position z1, z2 and z3, respectively. The corresponding measured retardance had errors between [-3.5°, 3.1°], [-4.9°, 3.2°] and [-5.9°, 3.1°]. Errors were slightly larger when the mirror was moved away from the zero delay line.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 the PSOCT images of a chicken cartilage sample in vitro. (a) Intensity; (b) retardance; and (c) fast axis orientation. The size bar indicates 500μm.
shows the intensity, retardance and axis orientation images obtained in a piece of chicken cartilage sample. Similar to other polarization-sensitive OCT images, the internal intensity variations suggested structural changes. The periodic changes in retardance near the sample surface revealed birefringence information of the cartilage material. The fast-axis orientation patterns coincided with the retardance changes and indicated the directional information of the organized cartilage tissue. At larger depths, the periodic changes disappeared in both retardance and fast-axis images, indicating loss of birefringence materials.

To demonstrate real time imaging, 3D in vivo PSOCT images were acquired from a finger fold of a human volunteer (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3D in vivo PSOCT images of a human finger fold. (a) Intensity (Media 1), (b) retardance (Media 2), and (c) fast-axis orientation (Media 3). The white size bar indicates 500 μm.
). The scan contained 1000 × 500 A-scans at 50 kHz. The images were median-filtered. In the intensity images [Fig. 6(a)], the epidermal area could be discriminated from dermal area close to the nail fold. Cuticle, nail plate, and nail bed can be identified. The retardance image [Fig. 6(b)] revealed strong birefringence at the lower area of the nail fold. Strong birefringence was observed underneath the nail bed. Variations in dermis indicated the changes in birefringence although the same region appeared homogenous in the intensity image. Similar features were also shown in the axis image [Fig. 6(c)].

4. Summary

Acknowledgements

This project was supported in part by a NSF grant CBET06431990.

References and links

1.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence Tomography – Principles and Applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992). [CrossRef]

4.

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. L. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 350–358 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, J. F. de Boer, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3453–3455 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: January 6, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 15, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 17, 2010
Published: March 24, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Chuanmao Fan and Gang Yao, "Single camera spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using offset B-scan modulation," Opt. Express 18, 7281-7287 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-7281


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References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence Tomography – Principles and Applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 350–358 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, J. F. de Boer, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, “Single-camera sequential-scan-based polarization-sensitive SDOCT for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 205–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3453–3455 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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