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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 7, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2012
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Optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in a gold film: effect of adhesion layer

Mohamadreza Najiminaini, Fartash Vasefi, Bozena Kaminska, and Jeffrey J.L. Carson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26186-26197 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026186


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Abstract

In this paper, we present a systematic study on the influence of composition of the adhesion layer between gold and a Pyrex substrate on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in an optically thick gold film. Large nano-hole arrays with different hole periodicities in a square lattice arrangement were fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography using different adhesion layers (chromium, titanium, or etched adhesion layer). The fabricated nano-hole arrays were optically characterized using transmission spectroscopy. The optical performance of each nano-hole array was numerically simulated using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The experiments and simulations revealed that the optical resonance transmission properties (i.e. the resonance wavelength, the spectral transmission modulation ratio, and the resonance bandwidth) of the nano-hole arrays depended highly on the composition and the thickness of the adhesion layer. The optical resonance bandwidths were larger for the nano-hole arrays with chromium or titanium adhesion layers. Also, a red-shift of the optical resonance peak was observed for nano-hole arrays with a metal adhesion layer compared to the corresponding nano-hole arrays with an etched adhesion layer, but the red-shift was greatest for the nano-hole array with the titanium adhesion layer. For adhesion layers of greater thickness, the optical resonance peaks were reduced in magnitude. Finally, nano-hole arrays with an etched adhesion layer had a significant blue-shift in the optical resonance peak and a narrower optical resonance bandwidth compared to nano-hole arrays with a titanium or a chromium adhesion layer. Consequently, a narrow optical resonance bandwidth characteristic of a nano-hole array with an etched adhesion layer can potentially enhance the spectral selectivity and offer improved optical performance.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

A nano-hole array, that is an array of periodic sub-wavelength apertures fabricated in an optically thick metal film, can exhibit extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). This unique property has enabled researchers to design and miniaturize optical elements in a way that surpasses the diffraction limit from standard aperture theory [1

1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. The EOT or optical resonance transmission property of nano-hole arrays is caused by the interaction of light with the Surface Plasmon (SP) that exists between the metal and dielectric surfaces and results in the resonant transmission of light through nano-holes by exploiting the tunneling effect [2

2. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. That is, light incident on one side of the metallic film of the nano-hole array is coupled to SPs that enter the nano-holes and decouple on the other side of the film. The EOT properties of nano-hole arrays have many potential applications in sub-wavelength photolithography, near-field scanning optical microscopy, wavelength-tunable filters, surface enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular sensing [3

3. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(2), 311–335 (2010). [CrossRef]

-7

7. F. M. Huang, Y. Chen, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Focusing of light by a Nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091119 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

It is well-known that the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays depend greatly on the lattice arrangement of holes, the distance between adjacent holes (periodicity), and the dielectric constants of the metal and surrounding dielectrics. For normal incidence of light, the spectral position of the optical transmission maximum of a nano-hole array is well-described byλmax=a0i2+j2εmεdεm+εd, and its corresponding optical transmission minimum byλmax=a0i2+j2εd. These relations hold for holes in a square lattice arrangement, where a0 is the periodicity of holes, εd and εm are the dielectric constants of the incident medium (at the top or bottom surface of the nano-hole) and the metal film, and i and j are integers expressing the scattering mode indices [1

1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

,2

2. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Many studies have investigated the effect of various metals and dielectrics on the optical transmission properties of nano-hole arrays [8

8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B 77, 075401 (2008).

-12

12. M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22255–22270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For instance, nano-hole arrays fabricated in metallic films such as Ag, Au, and Cu have larger optical resonance transmission peaks than nano-hole arrays with the same geometrical parameters in a perfect metal conductor [8

8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B 77, 075401 (2008).

]. However, Cr and Ni have high absorption properties in the optical region, which greatly influences the optical transmission properties of nano-hole arrays incorporating these materials [9

9. F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Matching the dielectric constant surrounding the back and front of nano-hole array in a metal film enhances the optical resonance transmission efficiency due to the coincidence of SP energy on both sides [10

10. A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In addition to the material effects on the optical resonance transmission properties, various geometrical effects such as hole shape, hole size, and hole periodicity have been explored [11

11. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

-13

13. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. For instance, the optical resonance transmission peaks of nano-hole arrays with elliptical hole shape depend highly on the angle of polarization of the incident light although no polarization dependency was observed for circular and square hole shapes [11

11. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also, the hole size has a significant effect on the optical resonance transmission efficiency and the resonance bandwidth of nano-hole arrays [12

12. M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22255–22270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

2. Motivation and objective

A nano-hole array fabricated in a noble metal such as gold has a higher optical resonance transmission compared to nano-hole arrays in other metals [8

8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B 77, 075401 (2008).

]. Unlike other noble metals such as Ag and Cu, gold does not suffer from oxidation and is chemically unreactive. As a result, gold has been the material of choice for fabrication of nano-hole arrays for applications such as bio-sensing and chemical sensing based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) [14

14. X. Chen, M. Pan, and K. Jiang, “Sensitivity enhancement of SPR biosensor by improving surface quality of glass slides,” Microelectron. Engin. 87(5–8), 790–792 (2009).

]. Nevertheless, there is a need for a thin adhesion layer between the glass substrate and the gold film during fabrication. Several studies have explored the effect of the adhesion layer on the optical properties of various plasmonic structures and its impact on performance in various applications [15

15. B. Lahiri, R. Dylewicz, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Impact of titanium adhesion layers on the response of arrays of metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs),” Opt. Express 18(11), 11202–11208 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

-20

20. J. Pan, R. M. Pafchek, F. F. Judd, and J. B. Baxter, “Effect of Chromium–Gold and Titanium–Titanium Nitride–Platinum–Gold Metallization on Wire/Ribbon Bondability,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29(4), 707–713 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For example, a thin titanium adhesion layer between gold and a semiconductor substrate caused a 20 nm red-shift on the resonance position of slit-ring resonators (SRR) [15

15. B. Lahiri, R. Dylewicz, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Impact of titanium adhesion layers on the response of arrays of metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs),” Opt. Express 18(11), 11202–11208 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also, the effect of the adhesion layer on the Short Range Surface Plasmon Polariton (SR-SPP) of gold bowtie antennae was numerically calculated and it was observed that the SR-SPP quenched when the adhesion layer was titanium or chromium. The suppression of the SR-SPP was stronger for chromium due to its higher extinction coefficient [17

17. X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham, “Localization of Near-Field Resonances in Bowtie Antennae: Influence of Adhesion Layers,” Plasmonics 4(1), 37–50 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Motivated by the reported effects of the adhesion layer on the optical properties of slit-ring resonators and bowtie antennae, we performed a systematic study on the effect of the adhesion layer on the EOT properties of nano-hole arrays in a gold film, which could potentially impact spectral filtering and bio-sensing applications.

3. Methods

3.1 Electron beam lithography (EBL)

For one device with a 10 nm titanium adhesion layer, we used a titanium etchant (TFT, Transene company, Inc.) to isotropically etch away the titanium adhesion layer. The etching rate of TFT for titanium was 2.5 nm/s at 20°C. Also, since the etchant contained 30% Hydrofluoric (HF) acid, it also etched the Pyrex substrate at approximate 4.3 nm/s. As a result, after the titanium conductive and adhesion layers within the holes were removed, the etchant had the opportunity to etch the Pyrex substrate and the titanium adhesion layer between the holes and beneath the gold film. For example, a nano-hole array with a 3 nm titanium conductive layer and a 10 nm titanium adhesion layer placed in the titanium etchant for 20 s resulted in removal of the 3 nm conductive layer, the 10 nm adhesion layer, and approximately 64 nm of Pyrex.

We fabricated nine different nano-hole arrays with various hole sizes and periodicities for each adhesion layer case (see Table 1). The ratio of the hole area (area of circle) to the background area (square area of periodicity) was 0.21 and the same for all arrays. A summary of the geometrical parameters (hole size and periodicity) of the fabricated nano-hole arrays is provided in Table 2

Table 2. Summary of the Geometrical Parameters of the Simulated and Fabricated Nano-Hole Arrays

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. The hole periodicities were chosen to observe optical resonance transmission of each array in the visible and near-infrared regime. The dimension of each array was 50 µm by 50 µm.

3.2 Optical characterization setup

To optically characterize each nano-hole array, we employed an inverted microscope (Nikon, TE300) attached to a photometer (PTI, D104), monochromator (PTI, 101), and photo-multiplier tube detector (PTI, 710). Unpolarized white light from a 100 W halogen lamp was focused on to the sample from the air-gold side using the bright-field condenser lens (NA = 0.3) of the microscope. The transmitted light was collected by a 20X objective (NA = 0.45; Nikon, 93150). Utilizing the aperture adjustment on the photometer, light from a desired region was captured for spectroscopic analysis by the monochromator and detector. For each device, optical transmission spectra were collected from the region containing the nano-hole array (sample) and a hole-free region (background). The background and lamp properties were accounted for by subtracting the background spectrum from the sample spectrum and then dividing the result by the measured white light spectrum (collected with the Pyrex substrate in front of the objective).

3.3 FDTD simulation of nano-hole arrays

We used the three-dimensional (3D) FDTD method to simulate the interaction between light and a nano-hole array in an optically thick metal film with the purpose of calculating the optical transmission properties [22

22. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966). [CrossRef]

,23

23. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method 2nd Ed (Artech House Publishers, Boston 2000).

]. We used the FDTD package from Lumerical Inc. (Vancouver, Canada) with dielectric constants for metallic and dielectric materials provided by Palik [24

24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985).

]. The minimum grid size was 2 nm in the FDTD simulation analysis. The details of the numerical simulation model are described in more detail elsewhere [12

12. M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22255–22270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3.4 Analysis of the optical transmission spectra

4. Results

Figure 5
Fig. 5 The spectral transmission modulation ratio for (1,0) resonance peak and its respective minimum versus hole periodicity for nano-hole arrays in a 100 nm gold film with various adhesion layers between gold and Pyrex substrate [5 nm chromium (red curve), 5 nm titanium (blue curve), and etched 10 nm titanium (green curve)]: a) simulation results and b) experimental results.
shows the STMR versus nano-hole periodicity for nano-hole arrays with various adhesion layers obtained from simulation and experimental results. In simulation, for a given periodicity, the STMR for the Ti10-etched layer was higher compared to the STMR for Cr5 or Ti5. The STMR for Ti5 was higher than the STMR for Cr5 although the difference was not large. As the periodicity of the nano-holes increased, the STMR increased slightly for all nano-hole arrays regardless of the adhesion layer type. From experiment, the STMR for Ti5 had the highest value compared to Cr5 or Ti10-etched for a given periodicity. The STMR for Ti10-etched had a lower STMR compared to Cr5. The STMR remained approximately constant as the periodicity increased for nano-hole arrays with the various adhesion layers. Both simulation and experiments revealed a higher STMR for Ti5 compared to the STMR for Cr5. In contrast to the experimental results, the STMR for Ti10-etched obtained from simulation was higher than the STMR for Cr5 or Ti5.

The (1,0) optical resonance bandwidth versus periodicity for nano-hole arrays with various adhesion layer materials is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The (1,0) optical resonance bandwidth versus hole periodicity for nano-hole arrays in a 100 nm gold film with various conductive and adhesion layers between the gold and Pyrex substrate [5 nm chromium (red curve), 5 nm titanium (blue curve), and etched 10 nm titanium (green curve)]: a) simulation results and b) experimental results.
. In both simulation and experimental results, the (1,0) resonance bandwidth was lower for the Ti10-etched layer than Ti5 or Cr5 for a given periodicity. However, the (1,0) resonance bandwidth for Cr5 was higher compared to Ti5. In both the simulation and experimental results, the bandwidth remained nearly constant as periodicity increased for each case.

The spatial distributions of the electric field intensity (log scale) are shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The spatial distribution of electric field intensity for a xy surface 6 nm above the hole from air-gold side: a) 5 nm Cr adhesion layer, b) 5 nm Ti adhesion layer, and c) etched 10 nm Ti adhesion layer. Spatial distribution of the electric field intensity in the central xz plane of the structure d) 5 nm Cr adhesion layer, e) 5 nm Ti adhesion layer, and f) etched 10 nm Ti adhesion layer.
for nano-hole arrays with 223 nm hole diameter and 425 nm periodicity for various adhesion layer cases at their corresponding (1,0) resonance wavelength. The spatial ditributions were computed for a xy surface near the hole (6 nm away from the hole in air-gold side) and the xz cross section through the hole. For all the adhesion layer cases, the highest electric field intensity was observed at the edges of the holes (hot-spots). The hole with the Ti10-etched layer had a much higher electric field intensity at the edges compared to holes with the Cr5 or Ti5 layers. The enhancement of the electric field intensity in the hot-spot of the Ti10-etched case was 34 and 98 times larger compared to the Ti5 and the Cr5 cases, respectively. The magnitude of electric field intensity was higher for the Ti5 case compared to the hole with the Cr adhesion layer.

5. Discussion

5.1 Overall findings

The (1,0) optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays from the Pyrex-gold side depended on composition of the adhesion layer. Both the 5 nm Ti and the 5 nm Cr adhesion layers caused a red-shift in the (1,0) resonance position of nano-hole arrays compared to the etched adhesion layer case. From the experimental results, the (1,0) STMRs for Cr5 or Ti5 were higher than the etched adhesion layer case. Also, the Ti and Cr adhesion layers had a major effect on increasing the optical resonance bandwidth of the nano-hole arrays.

In the simulation results (see Fig. 3(a)), the position of the (1,0) resonance peak was lower for the Ti10-etched case compared to the one without an adhesion layer (no adhesion layer). This difference was caused by the etched region in the Ti10-etched. The etched region decreased the effective refractive index on the Pyrex-gold side and blue-shifted the (1,0) resonance peak compared to the nano-hole array without an adhesion layer. Also, a larger etched region is expected to result in a lower effective refractive index on the Pyrex-gold side of the holes and, in turn, result in a greater blue-shift in the resonance peak.

5.2 Fabrication of nano-hole arrays

In addition to EBL used in this study, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and Nano-Imprint Lithography (NIL) are common methods for fabrication of nano-hole arrays [25

25. A. A. Tseng, “Recent developments in nanofabrication using focused ion beams,” Small 1(10), 924–939 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

-27

27. J. Chen, J. Shi, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, and A. Haghiri-Gosnet, “Gold nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 632–635 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Each method requires a thin adhesion layer to be deposited between the substrate and the gold film; however, the thickness of the adhesion layer can be considerably different for each fabrication methodology. For example, FIB milling requires an adhesion layer with a thickness of 2-3 nm, while due to the aggressive fabrication nature of EBL, a thicker adhesion layer is required. Based on our fabrication experiments, an adhesion layer with a thickness of 4 to 8 nm was sufficient to adhere the gold film to the Pyrex substrate and avoid peel off during the lift-off process.

We employed an EB-PVD system for deposition of the Ti and Cr adhesion layers to achieve uniform deposition of each metal. The deposition rates for both Ti and Cr materials were calibrated in order to achieve the desired thickness. However, due to material property differences between Cr and Ti, the deposition process was expected to result in thickness difference of a few angstroms between the two adhesion layer types for a 5 nm target thickness. This may have contributed to the slight differences in the optical resonance bandwidth and the STMR for nano-hole arrays fabricated with adhesion layers of each material. After the optical characterization of nano-hole arrays with the thicker Ti adhesion layer, we etched the adhesion layer of the samples and very different optical properties were observed in both experiment and simulation (see Fig. 3). According to the measured optical resonance properties of the (1,0) resonance peak from the Pyrex-gold side, it is probable that the Ti within and to the sides of each hole, and the Pyrex beneath and to the sides of each hole were partially etched away. SEM analysis of the etched nano-hole arrays confirmed that the gold film remained intact and did not peel off in the area of nano-hole array. This may be a result of resilient bonding between the gold nano-structure and the gold film beyond the nano-hole array, where the Ti etchant had no effect.

5.3 Analyses of the experimental and simulation results

Although there was good agreement between the (1,0) optical resonance position and bandwidth of nano-hole arrays studied in experiment and simulation, there were notable differences in the STMR observed by simulation and experiment. In experimental data, the STMR of nano-hole arrays with a Cr or Ti adhesion layer was higher than the STMR measured from simulation data. This discrepancy could have been due to limitations of the FDTD method when modeling the thin adhesion layer and the material dispersion properties used in the simulations. This is supported by the good agreement between the simulation and experimental optical transmission spectra for the thicker Ti adhesion layer (Ti10).

In both simulation and experimental results, the different absorption properties of Ti and Cr likely resulted in the observed differences in the (1,0) optical resonance positions between nano-hole arrays with Ti and Cr adhesion layers. Based on the dielectric constants of these materials, Cr has a stronger optical absorption compared to Ti although the difference in absorption between Cr and Ti becomes less apparent at higher wavelengths. As a result, the optical resonance positions of Ti5 approached those of Cr5 at higher periodicities.

The STMR measured by experiment for the Ti10-etched cases were lower than the STMR for the Cr5 or the Ti5 cases. This was due to the optical absorption properties of Ti or Cr, which caused the (1,0) transmission minimum to be lower in the Cr and Ti cases resulting in a higher STMR. Also, the large difference between the STMR for Ti5 compared to the STMR for Cr5 may have been due to the higher absorption properties of Cr compared to Ti. Based on the experimental results, a thin adhesion layer of Ti resulted in an increased STMR at the expense of a larger optical resonance bandwidth.

5.3 Implications of the adhesion layer composition to surface Plasmon sensing

Optical resonance peaks of nano-hole arrays can be employed in applications such as spectral filters and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensing. In SPR sensing applications such as bio-sensing, a narrow bandwidth and a steep slope in the optical resonance transmission spectrum are desired since they result in enhanced sensitivity of the nano-hole array for detection of bio-molecules. Based on the experimental results, the optical resonance peak for Ti10-etched and Ti5 had narrower bandwidth and sharper slopes compared to the nano-hole arrays with a Cr adhesion layer suggesting nano-hole arrays with a Ti adhesion layer or an etched adhesion layer are more suitable for SPR sensing applications. This is supported by recent SPR sensing work where a Ti adhesion layer was preferred over a Cr adhesion layer in Kretschmann SPR sensing configuration due to the lower absorption properties of Ti compared to Cr [14

14. X. Chen, M. Pan, and K. Jiang, “Sensitivity enhancement of SPR biosensor by improving surface quality of glass slides,” Microelectron. Engin. 87(5–8), 790–792 (2009).

].

6. Conclusions

In this study, we presented a systematic numerical and experimental analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in an optically thick gold film with various adhesion layers (5 nm titanium, 5 nm chromium, 10 nm titanium, and etched) between the Pyrex substrate and the gold film. The fabricated nano-hole arrays were optically characterized and compared with corresponding simulation results. Good agreement was observed between the simulation and experimental results for the (1,0) optical resonance bandwidth and the optical resonance position for most nano-hole arrays. However, some differences between the STMR values obtained from simulations and experimental measurements were observed. The composition and thickness of the adhesion layer had a large effect on the optical resonance transmission properties of the tested nano-hole arrays. The Cr and Ti adhesion layers caused an increase in (1,0) optical resonance position and bandwidth compared to the etched case. The measured STMR value was greatest for nano-hole arrays fabricated with a 5 nm adhesion layer of Ti. The results confirmed that the composition of the adhesion layer is an important parameter for optimization of nano-hole arrays for sensing applications.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Todd Simpson and Dr. Rick Glew for his technical support at the Nanofab Laboratory at University of Western Ontario (UWO). This project was funded by grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) to Dr. Bozena Kaminska and Dr. Jeffrey J.L. Carson. Dr. Fartash Vasefi was supported by a London Regional Cancer Program Translational Breast Cancer Research Trainee Fellowship.

References and links

1.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(2), 311–335 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. G. Moffitt, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Enhanced fluorescence from arrays of Nanoholes in a gold film,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(42), 14936–14941 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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7.

F. M. Huang, Y. Chen, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Focusing of light by a Nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091119 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B 77, 075401 (2008).

9.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22255–22270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

X. Chen, M. Pan, and K. Jiang, “Sensitivity enhancement of SPR biosensor by improving surface quality of glass slides,” Microelectron. Engin. 87(5–8), 790–792 (2009).

15.

B. Lahiri, R. Dylewicz, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Impact of titanium adhesion layers on the response of arrays of metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs),” Opt. Express 18(11), 11202–11208 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gérard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair, “Crucial Role of the Adhesion Layer on the Plasmonic Fluorescence Enhancement,” ACS Nano 3(7), 2043–2048 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham, “Localization of Near-Field Resonances in Bowtie Antennae: Influence of Adhesion Layers,” Plasmonics 4(1), 37–50 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

N. Djaker, R. Hostein, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, and J. Wenger, “Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Nanometric Aperture,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(39), 16250–16256 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

B. A. Sexton, B. N. Feltis, and T. J. Davis, “Characterisation of gold surface plasmon resonance sensor substrates,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 141(2Issue 2), 471–475 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Pan, R. M. Pafchek, F. F. Judd, and J. B. Baxter, “Effect of Chromium–Gold and Titanium–Titanium Nitride–Platinum–Gold Metallization on Wire/Ribbon Bondability,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29(4), 707–713 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

B. C. Galarreta, P. R. Norton, and F. Lagugn-Labarthet, “SERS detection of Streptavidin/Biotin Monolayer assemblies,” Langmuir 27(4), 1494–1498 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966). [CrossRef]

23.

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method 2nd Ed (Artech House Publishers, Boston 2000).

24.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985).

25.

A. A. Tseng, “Recent developments in nanofabrication using focused ion beams,” Small 1(10), 924–939 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. G. Kim, Y. Sim, Y. Cho, J. W. Seo, S. Kwon, J. W. Park, H. G. Choi, H. Kim, and S. Lee, “Large area pattern replication by nanoimprint lithography for LCD–TFT application,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(12), 2427–2431 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

J. Chen, J. Shi, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, and A. Haghiri-Gosnet, “Gold nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 632–635 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: February 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 16, 2011
Published: December 8, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Mohamadreza Najiminaini, Fartash Vasefi, Bozena Kaminska, and Jeffrey J.L. Carson, "Optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in a gold film: effect of adhesion layer," Opt. Express 19, 26186-26197 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26186


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References

  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(2), 311–335 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. G. Moffitt, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Enhanced fluorescence from arrays of Nanoholes in a gold film,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(42), 14936–14941 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, “Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: A new detection technology,” Proc SPIE 6099, 9–1-9–14 (2009).
  6. A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, K. S. Lim, and S. H. Oh, “Laser-illuminated nanohole arrays for multiplex plasmonic microarray sensing,” Opt. Express16(1), 219–224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. M. Huang, Y. Chen, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Focusing of light by a Nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(9), 091119 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B77, 075401 (2008).
  9. F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 1–7 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays,” Opt. Express18(21), 22255–22270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Chen, M. Pan, and K. Jiang, “Sensitivity enhancement of SPR biosensor by improving surface quality of glass slides,” Microelectron. Engin.87(5–8), 790–792 (2009).
  15. B. Lahiri, R. Dylewicz, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Impact of titanium adhesion layers on the response of arrays of metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs),” Opt. Express18(11), 11202–11208 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gérard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair, “Crucial Role of the Adhesion Layer on the Plasmonic Fluorescence Enhancement,” ACS Nano3(7), 2043–2048 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham, “Localization of Near-Field Resonances in Bowtie Antennae: Influence of Adhesion Layers,” Plasmonics4(1), 37–50 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Djaker, R. Hostein, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, and J. Wenger, “Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Nanometric Aperture,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(39), 16250–16256 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. B. A. Sexton, B. N. Feltis, and T. J. Davis, “Characterisation of gold surface plasmon resonance sensor substrates,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.141(2Issue 2), 471–475 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Pan, R. M. Pafchek, F. F. Judd, and J. B. Baxter, “Effect of Chromium–Gold and Titanium–Titanium Nitride–Platinum–Gold Metallization on Wire/Ribbon Bondability,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(4), 707–713 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. B. C. Galarreta, P. R. Norton, and F. Lagugn-Labarthet, “SERS detection of Streptavidin/Biotin Monolayer assemblies,” Langmuir27(4), 1494–1498 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.14(3), 302–307 (1966). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method 2nd Ed (Artech House Publishers, Boston 2000).
  24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985).
  25. A. A. Tseng, “Recent developments in nanofabrication using focused ion beams,” Small1(10), 924–939 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. G. Kim, Y. Sim, Y. Cho, J. W. Seo, S. Kwon, J. W. Park, H. G. Choi, H. Kim, and S. Lee, “Large area pattern replication by nanoimprint lithography for LCD–TFT application,” Microelectron. Eng.86(12), 2427–2431 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Chen, J. Shi, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, and A. Haghiri-Gosnet, “Gold nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng.86(4-6), 632–635 (2009). [CrossRef]

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