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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 7, Iss. 11 — Oct. 31, 2012
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Photoluminescence and photoresponse from InSb/InAs-based quantum dot structures

Oscar Gustafsson, Amir Karim, Jesper Berggren, Qin Wang, Carl Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Christopher Ernerheim-Jokumsen, Markus Soldemo, Jonas Weissenrieder, Sirpa Persson, Susanne Almqvist, Ulf Ekenberg, Bertrand Noharet, Carl Asplund, Mats Göthelid, Jan Y. Andersson, and Mattias Hammar  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 19, pp. 21264-21271 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.021264


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Abstract

InSb-based quantum dots grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on InAs substrates are studied for use as the active material in interband photon detectors. Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photoluminescence is demonstrated with peak emission at 8.5 µm and photoresponse, interpreted to originate from type-II interband transitions in a p-i-n photodiode, was measured up to 6 µm, both at 80 K. The possibilities and benefits of operation in the LWIR range (8-12 µm) are discussed and the results suggest that InSb-based quantum dot structures can be suitable candidates for photon detection in the LWIR regime.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Photon detectors for thermal imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) atmospheric transmission window (8-14 µm) are currently dominated by epitaxially grown structures of the small-bandgap bulk alloy HgCdTe and GaAs based quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), both of which necessitate costly cryogenic cooling solutions for optimal operation [1

1. A. Rogalski, “Material considerations for third generation infrared photon detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50(2-3), 240–252 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The possibility of improved on-wafer uniformity and elevated detector operation temperatures, which would enable increased performance and reduced system size and cost, has given rise to various alternative approaches; most notably intraband based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [2

2. D. Z. Ting, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, J. K. Liu, E. R. Blazejewski, S. B. Rafol, and Y.-C. Chang, “Submonolayer quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111107 (2009). [CrossRef]

6

6. L. Fu, P. Lever, K. Sears, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Electron Device Lett. 26(9), 628–630 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and strained layer superlattices (T2SLs) [7

7. D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2545–2548 (1987). [CrossRef]

10

10. N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, S. Myers, E. Plis, M. N. Kutty, M. Naydenkov, B. Klein, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Heterojunction bandgap engineered photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for single color and bicolor infrared detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 54(3), 273–277 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, an InSb quantum dot (QD) based structure grown on a GaSb substrate was demonstrated as a means of extending the detection wavelength of InAsSb photoconductors with a so-called nBn barrier design [11

11. C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, and S. D. Gunapala, “Mid-infrared quantum dot barrier photodetectors with extended cutoff wavelengths,” Electron. Lett. 46(18), 1286–1287 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The detection mechanism is based on transitions from bound hole states in the QDs to continuum states in the surrounding bulk material. This configuration is expected to benefit from long carrier lifetime due to the type-II nature of the involved transitions, suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall generation due to the relatively large bandgap matrix material (as compared to the detection wavelength) and reduced Auger generation due to the high strain.

Here, we report on the growth, fabrication and optical properties of InSb and InGaSb QD layer structures and investigate the possibilities of photon detection in the LWIR range. A mesa etched photovoltaic device was fabricated and photoresponse was measured up to 6 µm at 80K. Photoluminescence was furthermore demonstrated in a series of single-QD layer test structures with peak emission wavelengths extending up to 8.5 µm at 77 K. In all, the current study demonstrates a potential for realizing an interband QD-based photon detector for the LWIR spectral range.

2. Experimental details

Samples for PL measurements were grown on undoped InAs (001) substrates at 470-530 °C by MOVPE using an Aixtron 200/4 system with hydrogen as carrier gas. The reactor pressure was 100 mbar with a total gas flow of 15 standard liters per minute. Trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), trimethylstibine (TMSb), diethylzinc (DEZn), silane (SiH4) and arsine (AsH3) were used as precursors. The growth rate for InAs was 0.39 nm/s, calibrated using x-ray diffractometry (XRD) while the InSb growth rate was estimated to 0.06 nm/s from growth of relaxed InSb bulk material at 490 °C. InSb thin films were grown with thicknesses ranging between 3 and 14 monolayers (MLs), which exceed the critical thickness of 1.7 ML for InSb QD formation by the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism in the material system [16

16. V. A. Solovev, O. G. Lyublinskaya, A. N. Semenov, B. Y. Meltser, D. D. Solnyshkov, Y. V. Terentev, L. A. Prokopova, A. A. Toropov, S. V. Ivanov, and P. S. Kopev, “Room-temperature 3.9–4.3 µm photoluminescence from InSb submonolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy in an InAs matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011109 (2005) (and references therein). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, InGaSb thin films were grown with nominal thicknesses up to 14 ML to evaluate reduced strain conditions. During the growth the V/III molar input flux ratio was 150 for InAs and was varied between 0.8 and 1.6 for the growth of the InSb and InGaSb QD layers. The PL test structures consist of a single QD layer grown on an undoped 200 nm thick InAs buffer layer and are capped with 50-80 nm InAs. The p-i-n diode structure consists of a 500 nm thick zinc-doped p-type bottom-contact layer doped to 2x1018 cm−3, a 800 nm undoped buffer layer, an undoped active region consisting of ten InSb QD layers grown at 470 °C, each covered with 80 nm InAs and a 300 nm n-type top-contact layer which is silicon-doped to 4x1017 cm−3. The QD layers in the p-i-n diode have a nominal thickness of 8 ML and were grown at a V/III input flow ratio of 0.8.

The device processing was done using standard photolithography techniques with a H3PO4:H2O2:H2O-based wet etch to define the mesas. P and n contacts were both formed using a Ti/Pt/Au configuration. The devices were annealed at 255 °C for 5 minutes in vacuum and etched with a sodium hypochlorite solution after which the mesa sidewalls were encapsulated with polymerized photoresist.

The photoluminescence measurements were carried out at 77 K with a solid state laser emitting at 532 nm as excitation source. A Bruker V70 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, fitted with a 16 µm cut-off wavelength HgCdTe detector and step-scan functionality, was used to measure the PL whereas the responsivity was measured using a dispersive IR spectrometer system with a calibrated spectral irradiance. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM) images were recorded on in situ cleaved samples using an Omicron VT-STM at room temperature in a chamber with a base pressure lower than 1x10−10 mbar [17

17. J. Weissenrieder, M. Göthelid, G. Le Lay, and U. O. Karlsson, “Investigation of the surface phase diagram of Fe(1 1 0)–S,” Surf. Sci. 515(1), 135–142 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results and discussion

The QD sizes in the InSb QD/InAs material system are rather small compared to other III/V QD systems as reported by Norman et al. [12

12. A. G. Norman, N. J. Mason, M. J. Fisher, J. Richardson, A. Krier, P. J. Walker, and G. R. Booker, Structural and optical characterization of MOVPE self-assembled InSb quantum dots in InAs and GaSb matrices,” in Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 157 353–356 (1997).

] and Ivanov et al. [21

21. S. Ivanov, A. Semenov, V. Solovev, O. Lyublinskaya, Y. Terentev, B. Meltser, L. Prokopova, A. Sitnikova, A. Usikova, A. Toropov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Molecular beam epitaxy of type II InSb/InAs nanostructures with InSb sub-monolayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 72–77 (2005). [CrossRef]

] where dot diameters were observed to be in the range 2.5-10 nm. Corresponding results are obtained in this study from X-STM measurements on a sample with 3 ML QD layer thickness, as presented in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A 35 x 35 nm2 X-STM micrograph of a 10 QD-layer sample with a QD-layer thickness of 3 ML grown at 490 ̊C with a V/III ratio of 1.6. The image was acquired with a sample bias of −0.6 V.
. The figure indicates that 3D-islands have formed which extend around 2 nm in the growth direction, thus providing strong quantum confinement effects. A detailed STM study will be published elsewhere.

The reported short-wavelength emission in the InSb QD/InAs system [12

12. A. G. Norman, N. J. Mason, M. J. Fisher, J. Richardson, A. Krier, P. J. Walker, and G. R. Booker, Structural and optical characterization of MOVPE self-assembled InSb quantum dots in InAs and GaSb matrices,” in Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 157 353–356 (1997).

,13

13. P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solov’ev, Q. Zhuang, A. Krier, and S. V. Ivanov, “Room temperature midinfrared electroluminescence from InSb/InAs quantum dot light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091101 (2008). [CrossRef]

,15

15. P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solovev, Q. Zhuang, S. V. Ivanov, and A. Krier, “InSb quantum dot LEDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared applications,” Microelectron. J. 40(3), 469–472 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the PL results from this study and the expected band alignment where the valence band edge in the QD is located 0.30 eV above the InAs conduction band at 0 K [19

19. C. Pryor and M.-E. Pistol, “Band-edge diagrams for strained III–V semiconductor quantum wells, wires, and dots,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 1–11 (2005). [CrossRef]

] are all in favor of the interpretation that InSb QDs are grown in a size-sensitive domain where the QD bound state energy is strongly affected by confinement. This also indicates that type-II transitions in the LWIR range can be obtained from an optimization of the QD size.

A promising method to facilitate growth of larger QDs is to reduce the lattice mismatch. In this material system it is possible to reduce the strain by addition of gallium with limited impact on the valence band energy, which is a determining parameter for the type-II effective bandgap [19

19. C. Pryor and M.-E. Pistol, “Band-edge diagrams for strained III–V semiconductor quantum wells, wires, and dots,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 1–11 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PL measured at 77 K from InGaSb QD layer samples grown with a thickness of 12 ML at a V/III ratio of 0.8 at different temperatures.
the PL from single In0.6Ga0.4Sb QD-layer samples with a QD-layer thickness of 12 ML grown in the temperature range 470-530 °C is shown. The peaks present in the 4.5-7.4 µm range are attributed to QD-layer PL which extends up to 9 µm for the sample grown at 530 °C. A strong influence of the growth temperature on emission wavelength is observed, with longer wavelength and potentially larger QDs in the samples grown at higher temperature, in contrast to what was observed for the temperature dependence of InSb QD-layer growth in Fig. 3. This can be explained by the expected larger equilibrium dot size for the case of reduced strain.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, a photovoltaic device based on InSb QDs has been demonstrated with photoresponse up to 6 µm at 80 K. It was furthermore shown that peak PL from InSb- and InGaSb-QD layer structures can be obtained at 6.2 µm and 8.5 µm respectively at 77 K. This result can be seen as a first step towards the realization of an interband QD-based photon detector material for the LWIR regime.

This work was supported by FLIR systems, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) through the industry excellence center IMAGIC. Additional support is acknowledged from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Göran Gustafsson Foundation.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

A. Rogalski, “Material considerations for third generation infrared photon detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50(2-3), 240–252 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Z. Ting, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, J. K. Liu, E. R. Blazejewski, S. B. Rafol, and Y.-C. Chang, “Submonolayer quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111107 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, P. Bhattacharya, and S. W. Kennerly, “Heterostructures for achieving large responsivity in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1499–1502 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Razeghi, W. Zhang, H.-C. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, M. Taguchi, and B. Movaghar, “Focal plane arrays based on Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 5838, 125–136 (2005). [CrossRef]

5.

A. V. Barve, T. Rotter, Y. Sharma, S. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, and S. Krishna, “Systematic study of different transitions in high operating temperature quantum dots in a well photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061105 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Fu, P. Lever, K. Sears, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Electron Device Lett. 26(9), 628–630 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2545–2548 (1987). [CrossRef]

8.

C. J. Hill, J. V. Li, J. M. Mumolo, and S. D. Gunapala, “MBE grown type-II MWIR and LWIR superlattice photodiodes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50(2-3), 187–190 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Bogdanov, B. Nguyen, A. M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi, “Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 183501 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, S. Myers, E. Plis, M. N. Kutty, M. Naydenkov, B. Klein, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Heterojunction bandgap engineered photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for single color and bicolor infrared detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 54(3), 273–277 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, and S. D. Gunapala, “Mid-infrared quantum dot barrier photodetectors with extended cutoff wavelengths,” Electron. Lett. 46(18), 1286–1287 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

A. G. Norman, N. J. Mason, M. J. Fisher, J. Richardson, A. Krier, P. J. Walker, and G. R. Booker, Structural and optical characterization of MOVPE self-assembled InSb quantum dots in InAs and GaSb matrices,” in Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 157 353–356 (1997).

13.

P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solov’ev, Q. Zhuang, A. Krier, and S. V. Ivanov, “Room temperature midinfrared electroluminescence from InSb/InAs quantum dot light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091101 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Krier, X. L. Huang, and A. Hammiche, “Liquid phase epitaxial growth and morphology of InSb quantum dots,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(6), 874–878 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solovev, Q. Zhuang, S. V. Ivanov, and A. Krier, “InSb quantum dot LEDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared applications,” Microelectron. J. 40(3), 469–472 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

V. A. Solovev, O. G. Lyublinskaya, A. N. Semenov, B. Y. Meltser, D. D. Solnyshkov, Y. V. Terentev, L. A. Prokopova, A. A. Toropov, S. V. Ivanov, and P. S. Kopev, “Room-temperature 3.9–4.3 µm photoluminescence from InSb submonolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy in an InAs matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011109 (2005) (and references therein). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Weissenrieder, M. Göthelid, G. Le Lay, and U. O. Karlsson, “Investigation of the surface phase diagram of Fe(1 1 0)–S,” Surf. Sci. 515(1), 135–142 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Fisher and A. Krier, “Photoluminescence of epitaxial InAs produced by different growth methods,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38(7), 405–413 (1997). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Pryor and M.-E. Pistol, “Band-edge diagrams for strained III–V semiconductor quantum wells, wires, and dots,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 1–11 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

D. Z. Ting, A. Soibel, C. J. Hill, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, and S. D. Gunapala, “High operating temperature midwave quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD),” Proc. SPIE 8353, 835332, 835332-8 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Ivanov, A. Semenov, V. Solovev, O. Lyublinskaya, Y. Terentev, B. Meltser, L. Prokopova, A. Sitnikova, A. Usikova, A. Toropov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Molecular beam epitaxy of type II InSb/InAs nanostructures with InSb sub-monolayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 72–77 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(160.1890) Materials : Detector materials
(230.5160) Optical devices : Photodetectors
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: June 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 27, 2012
Published: September 4, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Oscar Gustafsson, Amir Karim, Jesper Berggren, Qin Wang, Carl Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Christopher Ernerheim-Jokumsen, Markus Soldemo, Jonas Weissenrieder, Sirpa Persson, Susanne Almqvist, Ulf Ekenberg, Bertrand Noharet, Carl Asplund, Mats Göthelid, Jan Y. Andersson, and Mattias Hammar, "Photoluminescence and photoresponse from InSb/InAs-based quantum dot structures," Opt. Express 20, 21264-21271 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-19-21264


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References

  1. A. Rogalski, “Material considerations for third generation infrared photon detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol.50(2-3), 240–252 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Z. Ting, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, J. K. Liu, E. R. Blazejewski, S. B. Rafol, and Y.-C. Chang, “Submonolayer quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(11), 111107 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, P. Bhattacharya, and S. W. Kennerly, “Heterostructures for achieving large responsivity in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(3), 1499–1502 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Razeghi, W. Zhang, H.-C. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, M. Taguchi, and B. Movaghar, “Focal plane arrays based on Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE5838, 125–136 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Barve, T. Rotter, Y. Sharma, S. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, and S. Krishna, “Systematic study of different transitions in high operating temperature quantum dots in a well photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Fu, P. Lever, K. Sears, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Electron Device Lett.26(9), 628–630 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.62(6), 2545–2548 (1987). [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Hill, J. V. Li, J. M. Mumolo, and S. D. Gunapala, “MBE grown type-II MWIR and LWIR superlattice photodiodes,” Infrared Phys. Technol.50(2-3), 187–190 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Bogdanov, B. Nguyen, A. M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi, “Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 183501 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, S. Myers, E. Plis, M. N. Kutty, M. Naydenkov, B. Klein, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Heterojunction bandgap engineered photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for single color and bicolor infrared detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol.54(3), 273–277 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, and S. D. Gunapala, “Mid-infrared quantum dot barrier photodetectors with extended cutoff wavelengths,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1286–1287 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. A. G. Norman, N. J. Mason, M. J. Fisher, J. Richardson, A. Krier, P. J. Walker, and G. R. Booker, Structural and optical characterization of MOVPE self-assembled InSb quantum dots in InAs and GaSb matrices,” in Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 157 353–356 (1997).
  13. P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solov’ev, Q. Zhuang, A. Krier, and S. V. Ivanov, “Room temperature midinfrared electroluminescence from InSb/InAs quantum dot light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091101 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Krier, X. L. Huang, and A. Hammiche, “Liquid phase epitaxial growth and morphology of InSb quantum dots,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.34(6), 874–878 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Carrington, V. A. Solovev, Q. Zhuang, S. V. Ivanov, and A. Krier, “InSb quantum dot LEDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared applications,” Microelectron. J.40(3), 469–472 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. V. A. Solovev, O. G. Lyublinskaya, A. N. Semenov, B. Y. Meltser, D. D. Solnyshkov, Y. V. Terentev, L. A. Prokopova, A. A. Toropov, S. V. Ivanov, and P. S. Kopev, “Room-temperature 3.9–4.3 µm photoluminescence from InSb submonolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy in an InAs matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 011109 (2005) (and references therein). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Weissenrieder, M. Göthelid, G. Le Lay, and U. O. Karlsson, “Investigation of the surface phase diagram of Fe(1 1 0)–S,” Surf. Sci.515(1), 135–142 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Fisher and A. Krier, “Photoluminescence of epitaxial InAs produced by different growth methods,” Infrared Phys. Technol.38(7), 405–413 (1997). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Pryor and M.-E. Pistol, “Band-edge diagrams for strained III–V semiconductor quantum wells, wires, and dots,” Phys. Rev. B72(20), 1–11 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. D. Z. Ting, A. Soibel, C. J. Hill, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, and S. D. Gunapala, “High operating temperature midwave quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD),” Proc. SPIE8353, 835332, 835332-8 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Ivanov, A. Semenov, V. Solovev, O. Lyublinskaya, Y. Terentev, B. Meltser, L. Prokopova, A. Sitnikova, A. Usikova, A. Toropov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Molecular beam epitaxy of type II InSb/InAs nanostructures with InSb sub-monolayers,” J. Cryst. Growth278(1-4), 72–77 (2005). [CrossRef]

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