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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 7, Iss. 12 — Dec. 19, 2012
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Fast, long-scan-range pump-probe measurement based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser

Xin Zhao, Zheng Zheng, Lei Liu, Qi Wang, Haiwei Chen, and Jiansheng Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 25584-25589 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.025584


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Abstract

A simple, fast and long-scan-range pump-probe scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a dual-wavelength passively mode-locked fiber laser. The pulse trains from the dual-wavelength laser have a small difference in their repetition frequencies inherently determined by the intracavity dispersion. This enables the realization of the asynchronous sampling scheme with a tens-of-nanosecond-long delay range and a picosecond scan step at a millisecond scan speed. Instead of two synchronized ultrafast lasers in the traditional asynchronous sampling scheme, just one fiber laser is needed in our scheme, which could significantly simplify the system setup.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical pump-probe spectroscopy techniques have become a powerful tool to investigate the fast transient dynamics of numerous physical phenomena [1

1. E. Ippen and C. Shank, S. Shapiro ed. Ultrashort Light Pulses (Springer, 1984), vol. 18, pp. 83–122.

]. By using a strong pump pulse and a weaker probe pulse and measuring the changes in the probe at different delays between the two pulses, the transient changes in the optical properties induced by the pump could be recorded as a function of time with a very high temporal resolution. The scanning scheme that generates the varying time delay between the pump and probe, thus, plays a critical role in the measurement speed, temporal range, and temporal resolution of the pump-probe techniques. While femtosecond pulses are mostly used and femtosecond to picosecond delay time resolution is necessary in many studies, the time constants of the transient events could vary from femtoseconds to tens of nanoseconds [2

2. P. E. Hopkins, C. M. Reinke, M. F. Su, R. H. Olsson III, E. A. Shaner, Z. C. Leseman, J. R. Serrano, L. M. Phinney, and I. El-Kady, “Reduction in the thermal conductivity of single crystalline silicon by phononic crystal patterning,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 107–112 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. A. Schmidt, M. Chiesa, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “An optical pump-probe technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064902–064905 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], depending on the physical phenomena involved. Simultaneously realizing such a long delay range in the pump-probe setup with a fast scan rate and a high temporal resolution is very challenging. Most of the conventional pump-probe spectroscopy setups use mechanical delay lines to sweep the delay between the pump and probe pulses. Yet, high-precision, linear step-motor stages are too slow for the applications with more demanding scanning speed requirements. Relatively fast scanning delay lines are often realized by a retro-reflector mounted on an electro-mechanical vibrator [5

5. M. J. Feldstein, P. Vohringer, and N. F. Scherer, “Rapid-scan pump-probe spectroscopy with high time and wave-number resolution: optical-Kerr-effect measurements of neat liquids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(8), 1500–1510 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. A. Gambetta, G. Galzerano, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Sub-100 fs two-color pump-probe spectroscopy of single wall carbon nanotubes with a 100 MHz Er-fiber laser system,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11727–11734 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the scanning range of the temporal delay is limited to tens of picosecond in order to realize a scanning rate of tens of hertz. Specially designed mechanical structures such as special rotary reflectors [7

7. J. Xu and X. C. Zhang, “Circular involute stage,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2082–2084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “High speed scanning of terahertz pulse by a rotary optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(10), 106102 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] enable a nanosecond delay range at a scan rate of several hundreds Hz. A fast-swinging, oscillating optical delay line [9

9. Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 023101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] could also realize relatively long delay range (e.g. ~a few nanoseconds) at relatively fast scan rates (e.g. hundreds of Hz). However, besides the complexity of these structures, the high-speed movements of the mechanical components could pose serious problems to the signal quality, linearity, and system stability. Further significant increase in the maximum delay is difficult to achieve, limited by the size of the already bulky moving parts. Also the vastly different beam paths at the different delays could also result in different beam divergence in free space that is difficult to deal with [4

4. A. Schmidt, M. Chiesa, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “An optical pump-probe technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064902–064905 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Stretching a fiber spool could be a more compact alternative scheme [10

10. N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves,2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

], but the picosecond-level scanning range is too limited for many applications.

Asynchronous optical sampling has emerged as a promising technique based on a very different working principle, which enables ultrafast time domain spectroscopy without a mechanical delay line [11

11. P. A. Elzinga, R. J. Kneisler, F. E. Lytle, Y. Jiang, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, “Pump/probe method for fast analysis of visible spectral signatures utilizing asynchronous optical sampling,” Appl. Opt. 26(19), 4303–4309 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the currently studied implementations, it requires two mode-locked lasers of slightly different pulse repetition rates, so that the pulses from different lasers automatically walk-off from each other in the time domain. It easily circumvents the challenges faced by the conventional optical delay lines, and could simultaneously realize high scanning speed and large scan range with high resolution. Using two mode-locked solid-state femtosecond lasers with ~1 GHz repetition rates and an 11 kHz repetition rate difference, high-speed asynchronous optical sampling pump-probe measurements over a 1-ns time delay were realized [12

12. A. Bartels, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and K. Kohler, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy at kilohertz-scan-rates over nanosecond-time-delays without mechanical delay line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041117 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Schemes based on similar dual-laser, dual-comb systems have also found very interesting applications in THz domain spectroscopy [13

13. G. Klatt, R. Gebs, H. Schafer, M. Nagel, C. Janke, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “High-resolution terahertz spectrometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef]

], fast, high-precision distance measurement [14

14. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and multi-heterodyne spectroscopy [15

15. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nevertheless, the dual-laser system involved is often quite complicated where the frequency difference of two mode-locked lasers is carefully controlled by an active feedback system. To avoid the complexity of the above dual-laser systems, optical sampling by cavity tuning was proposed by using just one ultrafast laser with a dynamically tunable and more complicated cavity [16

16. T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1613–1617 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “Terahertz spectrometer operation by laser repetition frequency tuning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 592–595 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. However, mechanical scanning inside the special laser cavity is still required in this scheme.

While most of the previously studied mode-locked lasers operate at one center wavelength, it has been demonstrated that dual-wavelength femtosecond lasers can be realized under certain cavity configurations [18

18. V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1391–1393 (1992). [CrossRef]

20

20. X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, X. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Switchable, dual-wavelength passively mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube modelocker and intracavity loss tuning,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1168–1173 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is demonstrated that in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a carbon nanotube modelocker, stable subpicosecond pulse trains can be simultaneously generated in two separate wavelength bands around the 1550 nm window [20

20. X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, X. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Switchable, dual-wavelength passively mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube modelocker and intracavity loss tuning,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1168–1173 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is observed that the repetition rates of the pulse trains at different center wavelengths possess a small difference (Δf), due to the intracavity group velocity dispersion (GVD). It is proportional to Dave*Lλ, where Dave is the average GVD of the cavity, L is the cavity length and Δλ is the difference of the center wavelengths of the output. Cavities designed with different amount of intracavity dispersion and Δλ can possess different Δf, which leads to different temporal sampling steps. Drifts in the cavity length that is common to free-running lasers would lead to nearly the same changes in the repetition rates at two wavelengths. This would result in negligible changes in the dispersion-determined frequency difference. Therefore, even free-running, dual-wavelength lasers with relatively long cavities under less stringent environmental control could be used to realize asynchronous optical sampling. On the other hand, changing the wavelength separation of these two operating wavelengths can significantly alter Δf, when the total cavity dispersion is fixed for a specific laser. It could be leveraged to realize functionality similar to the dual-laser systems previously demonstrated. Here, we present a novel pump-probe scheme based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength fiber laser. Without any external delay lines and using only one femtosecond laser with no intracavity dynamic tuning, two-color pump-probe measurements are realized with ~70 ns scan range and ~500 Hz scan rate. Unlike the conventional two-color pump–probe scheme where tight synchronization of two laser sources with a very low relative timing jitter are required [6

6. A. Gambetta, G. Galzerano, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Sub-100 fs two-color pump-probe spectroscopy of single wall carbon nanotubes with a 100 MHz Er-fiber laser system,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11727–11734 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], our scheme could be realized with a very compact, low cost, and simple setup.

2. Experimental setup

The pump-probe setup based on the dual-wavelength mode-locked laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed pump-probe measurement system.
. The dual-wavelength mode locked fiber laser is based on an Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser configuration with a single-wall carbon nanotube SWNT modelocker [20

20. X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, X. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Switchable, dual-wavelength passively mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube modelocker and intracavity loss tuning,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1168–1173 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The laser cavity consists of ~4.5 m EDF (INO Er105) and ~8.6 m SMF. An isolator is placed in the cavity to ensure uni-directional propagation of light. An optical attenuator is used to adjust the gain profile to enable dual-wavelength operation of the laser, and a sheet of SWNT-doped polycarbonate is sandwiched between two FC/APC connectors as the mode-locker. Through adjusting the intracavity loss, thus the gain profile, dual-wavelength operation of the laser can be achieved. After their powers are boosted by an optical amplifier, the pulses at different wavelengths are separated by a bandpass-filter splitter into the pump and probe. The splitter has passbands of 1528.5-1536.5 nm and 1554.2-1562.2 nm, roughly matching the center wavelengths of the dual-wavelength output of the laser. The pump and probe can then be individually controlled by adjusting their power and state of polarization using a tunable attenuator and polarization controllers, before they are re-combined by a 2*2 3-dB fiber coupler. The re-combined pump and probe are launched into the device-under-test (DUT). In our current experiments, we use the widely studied semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as an example of DUT, to demonstrate the principle of operation. At the exit of the DUT (Covega SOA-4589), an optical filter that has a passband of 1554.2-1562.2 nm is used to block the pump pulses and let the probe pass. The probe pulses are then detected by a photodetector with a bandwidth of ~100 MHz connected to a 500-MHz-bandwidth real-time oscilloscope (Agilent MS07054). The measured trace of the oscilloscope can then be used to retrieve the pump-probe information. The oscilloscope, we note, can be replaced with high-speed analog-to-digital data acquisition systems in future applications [14

14. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In our scheme, with only one passively mode-locked fiber laser, the overall experimental setup is very simple and can be rather compact. As both the pump and probe pulses go through almost the same path, except for the consideration of excessive fiber dispersion and pulse distortion, no special care is needed in tailoring the length of the fibers in the setup, which is a key advantage of the asynchronous sampling method.

3. Experimental results and discussions

Through tuning the cavity loss of the dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser, the gain spectral profile of the EDF can possess two peaks with similar gains under certain pump and signal conditions, which lead to the dual-wavelength operation of the laser. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Output optical spectrum of the dual-wavelength laser; (b) the corresponding RF spectrum.
shows the output optical spectrum of the dual-wavelength laser under the dual-wavelength mode. Two mode-locked wavelength peaks are present, one centered at ~1532.4 nm and one at ~1556.0 nm. The 1556 nm-wavelength output has a repetition rate (f) of 15.752704 MHz and the one at 1532.4 nm has a repetition rate (f + Δf) of 15.753170 MHz, when measured by a 1-GHz-bandwidth photodetector (New Focus 1611) and an RF spectrum analyzer (Agilent N9320B), as shown in Fig. 2(b). The difference in their repetition rates Δf is 466 Hz, due to the group velocity dispersion in the fiber cavity. We note that, when this free-running laser is operated under unregulated ambient environment, the repetition rates of the pulse trains at the two lasing wavelengths could drift by as much as tens of Hz in tens of minutes, due to the changes in the cavity length. Yet, the changes in Δf can still remain no larger than the resolution of our measurement instrument ( ± 1 Hz). The timing jitter of the 1532.4 nm pulses is measured as ~1.2 ps using the method described by Linde [21

21. D. Linde, “Characterization of the noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 39(4), 201–217 (1986). [CrossRef]

], while the jitter at 1560 nm is estimated to be <300 fs. The jitters are believed to be significantly affected by the wavelength stability besides other common source of jitters, and they would determine the temporal resolution of our setup [13

13. G. Klatt, R. Gebs, H. Schafer, M. Nagel, C. Janke, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “High-resolution terahertz spectrometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The dual-wavelength output is amplified to an average power of 3.5 mW using an EDFA and is then filtered with the bandpass filter splitter. The pulses at the center wavelength of 1532.4 nm are set as the pump, and the ones at 1555.1 nm as the probe in our experiments. The average powers of the pump and probe beam that are injected into the SOA are adjusted to 504 μW and 29 μW, respectively. The pulse shape is measured by a home-built autocorrelator. The pulse widths of the pump and probe pulses are 1.56 ps and 1.15 ps, respectively, if a sech2-shape pulse is assumed.

As shown in Fig. 1, the oscilloscope trace shows a series of periodic dips where the magnitude of the detected probe pulse deviates from its average value, when it overlaps with the pump. This pump-probe signal occurs every 2.15 ms in the real measurement time, which equals 1/Δf. A close-up view of the envelope of the probe pulse train when the SOA bias current is set to be 115 mA is given in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Oscilloscope trace measured when the bias current of the SOA is 115 mA. Inset is the zoom-in of the fast transient of the curve.
along with a fitted curve. Based on the repetition rates, the equivalent delay step in our current setup is 1.8 ps. The retrieved pump-probe signal shows a picosecond fast dip and nanosecond-long exponential recovery, which correspond to the ultrafast nonlinear gain dynamics and the slower carrier density recovery process of SOA, respectively [22

22. H. J. S. Dorren, X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, Z. Li, H. Ju, H. de Waardt, G.-D. Khoe, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, H. Kawashima, and T. Hasama, “All-optical logic based on ultrafast gain and index dynamics in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1079–1092 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. N. K. Dutta and Q. Wang, Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (World Scientific Publishing, 2006)

]. The details of the ultrafast picosecond response are shown in the inset of Fig. 3. Based on the pulsewidths of the pump and probe, the fast transient measured is likely limited by these finite pulsewidths. Further pulse compression and higher temporal resolution is needed to better resolve the subpicosecond effects.

We note that, though two-color pump-probe experiments are done in this work, by utilizing nonlinear optical processes that would broaden or shift the center wavelength of one of the pulses, standard pump-probe measurement in the same spectral range are possible [24

24. X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, Y. Liu, J. Guan, L. Liu, and Y. Sun, “High-resolution absolute distance measurement using a dual-wavelength, dual-comb, femtosecond fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (2012), CM2J.4.

].

4. Conclusions

A novel pump probe scheme is demonstrated by using a dual-wavelength femtosecond laser. Long scanning range (~tens of nanosecond) is realized at ~466 Hz scanning rate with a picosecond resolution. Since there are no external mechanical delay line and no need for precise temporal adjustment of the setup, high-speed pump-probe measurements with very long scanning ranges could be realized in a rather simple system. It offers a simple and low-cost alternative approach to realize the asynchronous sampling scheme without using two mode-locked lasers. We note that the conventional two-laser asynchronous sampling systems have demonstrated very high temporal sampling resolution, excellent system stability and short pulsewidth meeting the needs of a wide range of applications. Our simple approach, though sufficient for the current application, still need much improvements to meet similar requirements. Further improvements in the dual-wavelength laser’s performance, such as different combinations of f and Δf and better output stability and jitter, would help to enable pump-probe measurements with better resolution and accuracy. Such a dual-wavelength, dual-comb output could also be utilized to realize high-resolution distance measurements and other applications [24

24. X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, Y. Liu, J. Guan, L. Liu, and Y. Sun, “High-resolution absolute distance measurement using a dual-wavelength, dual-comb, femtosecond fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (2012), CM2J.4.

]. For the applications demands shorter, femtosecond pulses, it would be challenging to directly generate dual-wavelength pulses with very short pulsewidths in an EDF-based laser. Additional extracavity spectral broadening and pulse compression could be needed, with extra system complexity.

Acknowledgments

This work at Beihang University was supported by 973 Program (2012CB315601), NSFC (61107057/60921001) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China. The authors also would like to thank Prof. Jinsong Zhu of National Center for Nanoscience and Technology for providing the carbon nanotube samples.

References and links

1.

E. Ippen and C. Shank, S. Shapiro ed. Ultrashort Light Pulses (Springer, 1984), vol. 18, pp. 83–122.

2.

P. E. Hopkins, C. M. Reinke, M. F. Su, R. H. Olsson III, E. A. Shaner, Z. C. Leseman, J. R. Serrano, L. M. Phinney, and I. El-Kady, “Reduction in the thermal conductivity of single crystalline silicon by phononic crystal patterning,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 107–112 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Etzold, I. A. Howard, N. Forler, D. M. Cho, M. Meister, H. Mangold, J. Shu, M. R. Hansen, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “The effect of solvent additives on morphology and excited-state dynamics in pcpdtbt:pcbm photovoltaic blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(25), 10569–10583 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. Schmidt, M. Chiesa, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “An optical pump-probe technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064902–064905 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. J. Feldstein, P. Vohringer, and N. F. Scherer, “Rapid-scan pump-probe spectroscopy with high time and wave-number resolution: optical-Kerr-effect measurements of neat liquids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(8), 1500–1510 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Gambetta, G. Galzerano, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Sub-100 fs two-color pump-probe spectroscopy of single wall carbon nanotubes with a 100 MHz Er-fiber laser system,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11727–11734 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. Xu and X. C. Zhang, “Circular involute stage,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2082–2084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “High speed scanning of terahertz pulse by a rotary optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(10), 106102 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 023101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves,2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

11.

P. A. Elzinga, R. J. Kneisler, F. E. Lytle, Y. Jiang, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, “Pump/probe method for fast analysis of visible spectral signatures utilizing asynchronous optical sampling,” Appl. Opt. 26(19), 4303–4309 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Bartels, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and K. Kohler, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy at kilohertz-scan-rates over nanosecond-time-delays without mechanical delay line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041117 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, H. Schafer, M. Nagel, C. Janke, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “High-resolution terahertz spectrometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1613–1617 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “Terahertz spectrometer operation by laser repetition frequency tuning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 592–595 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1391–1393 (1992). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, and L. M. Zhao, “Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12692–12697 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Jiang, X. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Switchable, dual-wavelength passively mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube modelocker and intracavity loss tuning,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1168–1173 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

D. Linde, “Characterization of the noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 39(4), 201–217 (1986). [CrossRef]

22.

H. J. S. Dorren, X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, Z. Li, H. Ju, H. de Waardt, G.-D. Khoe, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, H. Kawashima, and T. Hasama, “All-optical logic based on ultrafast gain and index dynamics in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1079–1092 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

N. K. Dutta and Q. Wang, Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (World Scientific Publishing, 2006)

24.

X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, Y. Liu, J. Guan, L. Liu, and Y. Sun, “High-resolution absolute distance measurement using a dual-wavelength, dual-comb, femtosecond fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (2012), CM2J.4.

OCIS Codes
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(300.6500) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, time-resolved
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.7120) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast phenomena

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: June 25, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2012
Published: October 26, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Xin Zhao, Zheng Zheng, Lei Liu, Qi Wang, Haiwei Chen, and Jiansheng Liu, "Fast, long-scan-range pump-probe measurement based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Express 20, 25584-25589 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-23-25584


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References

  1. E. Ippen and C. Shank, S. Shapiro ed. Ultrashort Light Pulses (Springer, 1984), vol. 18, pp. 83–122.
  2. P. E. Hopkins, C. M. Reinke, M. F. Su, R. H. Olsson, E. A. Shaner, Z. C. Leseman, J. R. Serrano, L. M. Phinney, and I. El-Kady, “Reduction in the thermal conductivity of single crystalline silicon by phononic crystal patterning,” Nano Lett.11(1), 107–112 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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