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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 2 — Mar. 4, 2013
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Gold nanorod-facilitated localized heating of droplets in microfluidic chips

Zhiyong Li, Pan Wang, Limin Tong, and Lei Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 1281-1286 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.001281


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Abstract

A gold nanorod-facilitated optical heating method for droplets in microfluidic chips is reported. Individual and stream nanoliter level droplets containing gold nanorods are heated by a low power 808-nm-wavelength laser. Owing to the high photothermal conversion efficiency of gold nanorods, a droplet temperature of 95 °C is achieved by employing a 13.6 mW laser with good reproducibility. The heating and cooling times are 200 and 800 ms, respectively, which are attributed to the fast thermal-transfer rates of the droplets. By controlling the irradiation laser power, the temperature cycles for polymerase chain reaction are also demonstrated.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Droplet-based microreactors have attracted great research interest in physical, chemical and biological fields due to their advantages such as fast thermal- and mass-transfer rates, low sample and reagent consumption, and cost-effective fabrication [1

1. H. Song, D. L. Chen, and R. F. Ismagilov, “Reactions in droplets in microflulidic channels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(44), 7336–7356 (2006). [CrossRef]

,2

2. A. B. Theberge, F. Courtois, Y. Schaerli, M. Fischlechner, C. Abell, F. Hollfelder, and W. T. S. Huck, “Microdroplets in microfluidics: an evolving platform for discoveries in chemistry and biology,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(34), 5846–5868 (2010). [PubMed]

]. Their potential application areas rang from materials synthesis, bioanalysis, to high throughput screening [3

3. V. Trivedi, A. Doshi, G. K. Kurup, E. Ereifej, P. J. Vandevord, and A. S. Basu, “A modular approach for the generation, storage, mixing, and detection of droplet libraries for high throughput screening,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2433–2442 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. D. T. Chiu, R. M. Lorenz, and G. D. Jeffries, “Droplets for ultrasmall-volume analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5111–5118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A key requirement for many biological and chemical applications is efficient heating of the samples or reactants. For example, the ability to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high efficiency in microfluidic devices is critically dependent on rapid and precise heat transfer [6

6. M. U. Kopp, A. J. Mello, and A. Manz, “Chemical amplification: continuous-flow PCR on a chip,” Science 280(5366), 1046–1048 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

To date, on-chip heating mainly relies on electrical [7

7. A. J. de Mello, M. Habgood, N. L. Lancaster, T. Welton, and R. C. R. Wootton, “Precise temperature control in microfluidic devices using Joule heating of ionic liquids,” Lab Chip 4(5), 417–419 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. B. Selva, J. Marchalot, and M. C. Jullien, “An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(6), 065002 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and optical means [10

10. H. Reinhardt, P. S. Dittrich, A. Manz, and J. Franzke, “Micro-hotplate enhanced optical heating by infrared light for single cell treatment,” Lab Chip 7(11), 1509–1514 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. K. Zhang, A. Jian, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Y. Tam, “Laser-induced thermal bubbles for microfluidic applications,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1389–1395 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The use of embedded electrodes not only limits the spatial resolution of localized heating, but also increases the complexity of microchip fabrication. In contrast, the optical means do not need electric connections, and the heating locations are more controllable due to the small light spot. However, high-power light source and materials with strong photothermal effect are often needed to enhance the heating efficiency. The use of high-power light source introduces additional safety problems and the intensive incident light may also interfere with on-chip optical detection. Therefore, safe and effective means of photothermal conversion on microfluidic chips without interference with detection are highly desired.

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have large absorption cross sections (more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of organic fluorophores) at their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths [13

13. C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. Wang, “Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparticle based optothermal nanoconvertors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11135–11138 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Under the resonant excitation, a small number of GNPs can absorb a large amount of light and convert it into heat with very high efficiency [14

14. H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fundamental aspects of the photothermal conversion arising from the LSPR of metal nanoparticles have been carefully studied [15

15. S. Merabia, S. Shenogin, L. Joly, P. Keblinski, and J. L. Barrat, “Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15113–15118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. B. Jang, Y. S. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Effects of gold nanorod concentration on the depth-related temperature increase during hyperthermic ablation,” Small 7(2), 265–270 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In spite of the success of heating large volume solution [17

17. H. Chen, L. Shao, T. Ming, Z. Sun, C. Zhao, B. Yang, and J. Wang, “Understanding the photothermal conversion efficiency of gold nanocrystals,” Small 6(20), 2272–2280 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and bulk polymer [19

19. C. Fang, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and H. Wu, “A gold nanocrystal/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite for plasmonic heating on microfluidic chips,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(1), 94–98 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] by employing GNPs, well-controlled heating of nanoliter level droplet is a great challenge.

Here we demonstrate an optical droplet heating method by employing gold nanorods (GNRs) as photothermal conversion materials. Localized heating of individual and stream droplets containing GNRs was achieved with fast response, large temperature range, and precise temperature control. By varying the incident laser power, we further demonstrated the possibility of ultra-fast PCR in individual droplets.

2. Experimental section

In this work, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip, as schematically illustrated in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the microfluidic chip. (b and c) Optical microscope images of (b) droplets generation and (c) droplets flowing through the heating zone.
, was used for generating droplets and localized heating. It was fabricated using the standard soft lithography described elsewhere [20

20. J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. K. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The depth of the microchannel is about 130 μm, and the thickness of the chip is about 800 μm. Two multi-mode optical fibers (62.5/125 μm) were inserted into the fiber channels for heating and fluorescence excitation, respectively. To generate aqueous droplets, paraffin oil was employed as carrier phase. Two syringe pumps (Pico Plus, Harvard Apparatus, USA) were used for driving the paraffin oil and GNR solution, respectively. By tuning the flow rates of paraffin oil and GNR solution, the volume and interval of the droplets can be well controlled. Figure 1(b) and 1(c) show microscope images of the droplet generation zone and laser heating zone, respectively. The uniform droplets indicate a high reproducibility of the composition in the droplets, which is a key factor affecting the heating performance.

Rhodamine B was used to determine the temperature of droplets, because its quantum yield is strongly temperature dependent in the range between 0 and 100 °C [22

22. D. Ross, M. Gaitan, and L. E. Locascio, “Temperature measurement in microfluidic systems using a temperature-dependent fluorescent dye,” Anal. Chem. 73(17), 4117–4123 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To avoid the adsorption of rhodamine B on the PDMS channel wall, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was employed as a dynamic coating reagent [23

23. G. T. Roman, K. McDaniel, and C. T. Culbertson, “High efficiency micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic analytes on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(2), 194–201 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To calibrate the dependence of fluorescence intensity on temperature, 1.5 mL of an aqueous rhodamine B (0.1 mM) and SDS (50 mM) solution (95 °C) was injected into a quartz cuvette mounted with a K-type thermocouple. The temperature and fluorescence spectra, excited by a 532-nm-wavelength laser, were dynamically recorded by a digital thermometer and a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean optics, USA), respectively. For the calibration curve, peak fluorescence intensity at different temperature ranging from 90 to 22 °C (environment temperature) were normalized by the intensity at 22 °C. The temperature is a function of normalized intensity as shown in Eq. (1):
T=123237I+235I2100I3
(1)
where T is the temperature and I is the normalized intensity. This equation is used for the calculation of droplets’ temperature.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Individual droplets heating

For characterization of this localized heating method, we firstly investigated the heating performance for individual stable droplets by employing stop flow technique. When a 2.5 nL droplet containing GNRs (9 nM), rhodamine B (0.1 mM), and SDS (50 mM) was located at the laser heating zone, as shown in Fig. 1(a), an intensity-tunable 808-nm-wavelength laser was used to illuminate the droplet from the left, and a 532-nm-wavelength laser was used to excite rhodamine B from the right. The fluorescence of rhodamine B was collected via an optical microscope (Eclipse 90i, Nikon, Japan) with a 10 × objective and then directed to the spectrometer. 532 nm and 808 nm notch filters were used to eliminate the scattered light. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Fluorescence spectra of rhodamine B in the droplet obtained at increasing laser powers. The insets are optical microscope images of a droplet containing GNRs taken without (top) and with (bottom) a 13.6 mW 808-nm-wavelength laser heating. The scale bars: 100 μm. (b) Temperature of the droplet as a function of laser power.
shows the fluorescence spectra obtained at increasing laser powers from 0 to 13.6 mW. The fluorescent intensity decreased monotonically with the increasing laser power, indicating the gradual increase of the droplet temperature. The insets of Fig. 3(a) show two typical images of a droplet without (top) and with (bottom) laser heating. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the droplet temperature increases from 22 to 95 °C, and is linearly proportional to the laser power. Thus, by adjusting the power of the heating laser, the temperature of droplets can be precisely controlled. Also, no gas bulbs were observed during the heating process because the confinement effect assisted the prevention of water evaporation [24

24. P. H. Hoang, H. Park, and D. P. Kim, “Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of unaccommodating inorganic nanomaterials in droplet- and ionic liquid-assisted microfluidic system,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(37), 14765–14770 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For a droplet without GNRs, no obvious fluorescence intensity change was observed before and after the illumination of 808-nm-wavelength laser, which confirms that the heating of droplets was due to the photothermal effect of GNRs.

To investigate the reproducibility and response time of this method, the time-dependent fluorescence intensity at peak wavelength of 588 nm was traced. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Reversible response of the droplet temperature when the laser was switched on (11 mW) and off alternatively. (b) Typical time-dependent temperature of the droplet reveals the heating and cooling times of about 200 and 800 ms, respectively.
shows reversible response of the droplet temperature when an 11 mW 808-nm-wavelength laser was switched on and off alternatively, indicating a good reproducibility of droplet temperature. As shown in Fig. 4(b), the heating and cooling times are 200 and 800 ms, respectively, which are 1 or 2 orders of magnitude faster than those of previously reported methods [19

19. C. Fang, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and H. Wu, “A gold nanocrystal/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite for plasmonic heating on microfluidic chips,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(1), 94–98 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. J. H. Park, A. M. Derfus, E. Segal, K. S. Vecchio, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Local heating of discrete droplets using magnetic porous silicon-based photonic crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7938–7946 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is worth mentioning that the toxicity of CTAB may have negative effects on some biological samples, but this can be solved by coating GNRs with biocompatible polymers, such as polyethylene glycol.

3.2 Stream droplets heating

Furthermore, we employed the aforementioned configuration for stream droplets heating by setting the flow rates of paraffin oil and GNRs solutions at 0.12 μL/min and 0.08 μL/min, respectively. In this case, the time-interval between two adjacent droplets was 1.2 s. There was only one droplet flowing through the 500-μm-length heating zone once a time, and thus, the interference between adjacent droplets was eliminated. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Reversible response of fluorescence intensity of stream droplets by alternately switching on and off a 20 mW 808-nm-wavelength laser.
shows the fluorescence intensity of 45 consecutive droplets, and each peak indicates a droplet. When a 20 mW 808-nm-wavelength laser was illuminated on the heating zone, the fluorescence intensity of droplets decreased to 18% of the original intensity. According to Eq. (1), the droplets were heated to 87 °C when they flowed through the laser heating zone. The good reversibility of fluorescence intensity not only indicates a good reproducibility of droplet temperature, but also demonstrates the uniformity of the droplets.

3.3 Temperature cycle for rapid PCR amplification

The precise temperature control, rapid response, and small heating volume make this localized heating method attractive for many applications such as rapid PCR amplification [26

26. K. J. Shaw, P. T. Docker, J. V. Yelland, C. E. Dyer, J. Greenman, G. M. Greenway, and S. J. Haswell, “Rapid PCR amplification using a microfluidic device with integrated microwave heating and air impingement cooling,” Lab Chip 10(13), 1725–1728 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To demonstrate the temperature cycles of ultra-fast PCR amplification, we calculated the laser powers for DNA denaturation (94~98 °C), primer annealing (50~65 °C), and DNA extension (75~80 °C), and controlled the illumination time for each step. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Typical thermal cycling profiles of the laser heating system for rapid PCR amplification. The DNA denaturation, primer annealing, and DNA extension temperatures were of 96 °C, 60 °C and 78 °C, respectively.
shows two typical thermal cycling profiles for PCR amplification, the droplet temperature is very stable during the three steps. Owing to the fast thermal-transfer rate of droplets and high photothermal conversion efficiency, the transition from one step to another was achieved within 1 s, and the time for one cycle is only 75 s, which means 48 cycles can be accomplished in one hour. This represents a considerable time saving on previously reported microwave PCR systems where 33 cycles took 127 minutes [27

27. J. J. Shah, S. G. Sundaresan, J. Geist, D. R. Reyes, J. C. Booth, M. V. Rao, and M. Gaitan, “Microwave dielectric heating of fluids in an integrated microfluidic device,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(11), 2224–2230 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated an optical localized heating method for microfluidic applications. Individual and stream nanoliter level droplets containing GNRs were heated by a low power 808-nm-wavelength laser. The droplet temperature was linearly proportional to the heating laser power. A temperature of 95 °C was achieved by employing a 13.6 mW 808-nm-wavelength laser to an individual droplet. Owing to the fast thermal-transfer rates of droplets, the heating and cooling times were less than 1 s. Moreover, temperature cycles of PCR were demonstrated by adjusting the heating laser power and controlling the heating time. We envision this method to be quite suitable for a wide range of applications in microfluidics requiring rapid and localized heating, including cell treatment, enzyme activity research, chemical and biology assays.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under project Nos. 60907036, 61036012 and 61275217; National Science and technology support program under project No. 2012BAK08B05. We thank Chao Meng, Yize Lu and Yaoguang Ma for helpful discussions.

References and links

1.

H. Song, D. L. Chen, and R. F. Ismagilov, “Reactions in droplets in microflulidic channels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(44), 7336–7356 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

A. B. Theberge, F. Courtois, Y. Schaerli, M. Fischlechner, C. Abell, F. Hollfelder, and W. T. S. Huck, “Microdroplets in microfluidics: an evolving platform for discoveries in chemistry and biology,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(34), 5846–5868 (2010). [PubMed]

3.

V. Trivedi, A. Doshi, G. K. Kurup, E. Ereifej, P. J. Vandevord, and A. S. Basu, “A modular approach for the generation, storage, mixing, and detection of droplet libraries for high throughput screening,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2433–2442 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J.-T. Wang, J. Wang, and J.-J. Han, “Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics,” Small 7(13), 1728–1754 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. T. Chiu, R. M. Lorenz, and G. D. Jeffries, “Droplets for ultrasmall-volume analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5111–5118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. U. Kopp, A. J. Mello, and A. Manz, “Chemical amplification: continuous-flow PCR on a chip,” Science 280(5366), 1046–1048 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. J. de Mello, M. Habgood, N. L. Lancaster, T. Welton, and R. C. R. Wootton, “Precise temperature control in microfluidic devices using Joule heating of ionic liquids,” Lab Chip 4(5), 417–419 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

R. Fu, B. Xu, and D. Li, “Study of the temperature field in microchannels of a PDMS chip with embedded local heater using temperature-dependent fluorescent dye,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 45(9), 841–847 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Selva, J. Marchalot, and M. C. Jullien, “An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(6), 065002 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Reinhardt, P. S. Dittrich, A. Manz, and J. Franzke, “Micro-hotplate enhanced optical heating by infrared light for single cell treatment,” Lab Chip 7(11), 1509–1514 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. H. Thamdrup, N. B. Larsen, and A. Kristensen, “Light-induced local heating for thermophoretic manipulation of DNA in polymer micro- and nanochannels,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 826–832 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. Zhang, A. Jian, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Y. Tam, “Laser-induced thermal bubbles for microfluidic applications,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1389–1395 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. Wang, “Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparticle based optothermal nanoconvertors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11135–11138 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Merabia, S. Shenogin, L. Joly, P. Keblinski, and J. L. Barrat, “Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15113–15118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

H. Chen, L. Shao, T. Ming, Z. Sun, C. Zhao, B. Yang, and J. Wang, “Understanding the photothermal conversion efficiency of gold nanocrystals,” Small 6(20), 2272–2280 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

B. Jang, Y. S. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Effects of gold nanorod concentration on the depth-related temperature increase during hyperthermic ablation,” Small 7(2), 265–270 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Fang, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and H. Wu, “A gold nanocrystal/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite for plasmonic heating on microfluidic chips,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(1), 94–98 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. K. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Xia, L. Tong, X. Xu, and Y. Ying, “Polymer nanofibers embedded with aligned gold nanorods: a new platform for plasmonic studies and optical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3145–3150 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

D. Ross, M. Gaitan, and L. E. Locascio, “Temperature measurement in microfluidic systems using a temperature-dependent fluorescent dye,” Anal. Chem. 73(17), 4117–4123 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

G. T. Roman, K. McDaniel, and C. T. Culbertson, “High efficiency micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic analytes on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(2), 194–201 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

P. H. Hoang, H. Park, and D. P. Kim, “Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of unaccommodating inorganic nanomaterials in droplet- and ionic liquid-assisted microfluidic system,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(37), 14765–14770 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. H. Park, A. M. Derfus, E. Segal, K. S. Vecchio, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Local heating of discrete droplets using magnetic porous silicon-based photonic crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7938–7946 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

K. J. Shaw, P. T. Docker, J. V. Yelland, C. E. Dyer, J. Greenman, G. M. Greenway, and S. J. Haswell, “Rapid PCR amplification using a microfluidic device with integrated microwave heating and air impingement cooling,” Lab Chip 10(13), 1725–1728 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

J. J. Shah, S. G. Sundaresan, J. Geist, D. R. Reyes, J. C. Booth, M. V. Rao, and M. Gaitan, “Microwave dielectric heating of fluids in an integrated microfluidic device,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(11), 2224–2230 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: October 31, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 15, 2012
Published: January 11, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Zhiyong Li, Pan Wang, Limin Tong, and Lei Zhang, "Gold nanorod-facilitated localized heating of droplets in microfluidic chips," Opt. Express 21, 1281-1286 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-1281


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References

  1. H. Song, D. L. Chen, and R. F. Ismagilov, “Reactions in droplets in microflulidic channels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.45(44), 7336–7356 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. A. B. Theberge, F. Courtois, Y. Schaerli, M. Fischlechner, C. Abell, F. Hollfelder, and W. T. S. Huck, “Microdroplets in microfluidics: an evolving platform for discoveries in chemistry and biology,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(34), 5846–5868 (2010). [PubMed]
  3. V. Trivedi, A. Doshi, G. K. Kurup, E. Ereifej, P. J. Vandevord, and A. S. Basu, “A modular approach for the generation, storage, mixing, and detection of droplet libraries for high throughput screening,” Lab Chip10(18), 2433–2442 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J.-T. Wang, J. Wang, and J.-J. Han, “Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics,” Small7(13), 1728–1754 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. T. Chiu, R. M. Lorenz, and G. D. Jeffries, “Droplets for ultrasmall-volume analysis,” Anal. Chem.81(13), 5111–5118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. U. Kopp, A. J. Mello, and A. Manz, “Chemical amplification: continuous-flow PCR on a chip,” Science280(5366), 1046–1048 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. J. de Mello, M. Habgood, N. L. Lancaster, T. Welton, and R. C. R. Wootton, “Precise temperature control in microfluidic devices using Joule heating of ionic liquids,” Lab Chip4(5), 417–419 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Fu, B. Xu, and D. Li, “Study of the temperature field in microchannels of a PDMS chip with embedded local heater using temperature-dependent fluorescent dye,” Int. J. Therm. Sci.45(9), 841–847 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Selva, J. Marchalot, and M. C. Jullien, “An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics,” J. Micromech. Microeng.19(6), 065002 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Reinhardt, P. S. Dittrich, A. Manz, and J. Franzke, “Micro-hotplate enhanced optical heating by infrared light for single cell treatment,” Lab Chip7(11), 1509–1514 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. H. Thamdrup, N. B. Larsen, and A. Kristensen, “Light-induced local heating for thermophoretic manipulation of DNA in polymer micro- and nanochannels,” Nano Lett.10(3), 826–832 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Zhang, A. Jian, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Y. Tam, “Laser-induced thermal bubbles for microfluidic applications,” Lab Chip11(7), 1389–1395 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. Wang, “Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparticle based optothermal nanoconvertors,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(22), 11135–11138 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1139–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Merabia, S. Shenogin, L. Joly, P. Keblinski, and J. L. Barrat, “Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15113–15118 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano4(2), 709–716 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Chen, L. Shao, T. Ming, Z. Sun, C. Zhao, B. Yang, and J. Wang, “Understanding the photothermal conversion efficiency of gold nanocrystals,” Small6(20), 2272–2280 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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