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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 10 — Nov. 8, 2013
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Integration of microfluidics with grating coupled silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE

Carlos Errando-Herranz, Farizah Saharil, Albert Mola Romero, Niklas Sandström, Reza Zandi Shafagh, Wouter van der Wijngaart, Tommy Haraldsson, and Kristinn B. Gylfason  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 21293-21298 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.021293


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Abstract

We present a novel integration method for packaging silicon photonic sensors with polymer microfluidics, designed to be suitable for wafer-level production methods. The method addresses the previously unmet manufacturing challenges of matching the microfluidic footprint area to that of the photonics, and of robust bonding of microfluidic layers to biofunctionalized surfaces. We demonstrate the fabrication, in a single step, of a microfluidic layer in the recently introduced OSTE polymer, and the subsequent unassisted dry bonding of the microfluidic layer to a grating coupled silicon photonic ring resonator sensor chip. The microfluidic layer features photopatterned through holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections, as well as molded microchannels and tube connectors, and is manufactured and subsequently bonded to a silicon sensor chip in less than 10 minutes. Combining this new microfluidic packaging method with photonic waveguide surface gratings for light coupling allows matching the size scale of microfluidics to that of current silicon photonic biosensors. To demonstrate the new method, we performed successful refractive index measurements of liquid ethanol and methanol samples, using the fabricated device. The minimum required sample volume for refractive index measurement is below one nanoliter.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The combination of a biological recognition element with a physical transducer makes biosensing a powerful tool for biological and medical analysis. Although widely used, label-based biosensing has several limitations, such as the risk of interference with the reaction under study [1

1. Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir 24, 13399–13405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], labeling heterogeneity [2

2. T. Kodadek, “Protein microarrays: prospects and problems,” Chemistry & Biology 8, 105–115 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and a lack of real-time kinetics measurements for quantifying reaction rates. Label-free biosensing addresses these limitations by providing real-time physically quantifiable information without labels.

Silicon photonic waveguide based biosensors share these characteristics. These sensors detect refractive index changes within their evanescent field upon biomolecule binding with high sensitivity, and can be fabricated in compact arrays using standard lithography techniques. Several such biosensors have been reported: Ring resonators [5

5. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been shown to be scalable to large sensing arrays [6

6. M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and yield volume refractive index sensitivities up to 70 nm/RIU [5

5. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Spiral-path interferometers have shown sensitivity of 163 nm/RIU [7

7. A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schmid, “Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response,” Opt. Lett. 33, 596–598 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, the use of surface grating couplers enables the probing of light everywhere on chip [8

8. O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A 5, 453+ (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Grating couplers can be added to the sensing circuits without an additional lithography step, yielding a one-step fabrication process for grating coupled photonic sensor chips on SOI substrates [9

9. M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 19, 3592–3598 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These reports show that silicon photonic label-free biosensing has the potential to become a highly scalable and low cost sensing technique. However, for chemical and biological sensing, the integration of liquid handling systems consumes a considerably larger wafer area than that of the photonic footprint, and thus the scaling benefit is lost.

Molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes the current academic solution for silicon photonic biosensor microfluidics [10

10. M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but drawbacks such as large wafer area consumption, long curing times, adsorption of small biomolecules into the PDMS, and lack of bonding techniques compatible with surface biofunctionalization, make industrial application questionable [10

10. M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These limitations are apparent in [11

11. K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 225–235 (2009). [CrossRef]

], in which stamping with an epoxy glue for bonding results in channel clogging. Moreover, PDMS based soft-lithography molding of vias (through holes) is hampered by squeeze-film formation, thus necessitating a second low resolution via fabrication step by hole punching [12

12. C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

To address these limitations, the Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Ene (OSTE) polymer was introduced [13

13. C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 11, 3136–3147 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and microfluidic integration on silicon at wafer level demonstrated [14

14. F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 12, 3032–3035 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. More recently, by a UV-initiated thiol-ene reaction, vias have been photopatterned within a few seconds [15

15. J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

], and a low temperature dry-bonding technique enabled by a room-temperature thiol-isocyanate click reaction [16

16. B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie 139, 137–140 (2008). [CrossRef]

], permitting bonding to biofunctionalized silicon [17

17. C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

] and gold [18

18. N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781. [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, we showed integration of OSTE onto a silicon photonic interferometer sensor, by coupling light to the chip and verifying the interference in the output power [19

19. C. Errando-Herranz, F. Saharil, A. Mola Romero, N. Sandström, R. Z. Shafagh, W. van der Wijngaart, T. Haraldsson, and K. B. Gylfason, “Integration of polymer microfluidic channels, vias, and connectors with Silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE,” in “17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1613–1616.

].

Here, we demonstrate the integration of OSTE on silicon photonics by performing refractive index measurements with a silicon photonic ring resonator chip. We present a one-step integration of microfluidics onto silicon photonic sensors able to match the size scale of the liquid handling system with that of the silicon photonics, by using a self-bonding OSTE polymer microfluidic layer that is structured using a combined photolithography and micromolding process. Figure 1 illustrates the process: 1) By a photolithography of OSTE, we open optical vias with the same size scale as optical fibers above grating couplers, enabling light coupling anywhere on the sensing chip. 2) For rapid prototyping, we mold tube connectors directly into the microfluidic layer. These tube connectors can be substituted by compact manifold connectors, if needed, for a higher integration density at wafer level. 3) We dry bond the microfluidic layer to patterned silicon surfaces by click chemistry.

Fig. 1 The integration scheme: The top mold is a glass mask combining chromium patterns for photolithography of vias with SU8 reliefs for microchannel molding. The insets show photographs of the reliefs and via patterns on the mask. The bottom PDMS mold defines the chip outline and the fluidic connectors. After UV curing, development, and dry-bonding of the microfluidic layer to the photonic chip, the integrated chip is ready for measurements.

2. Fabrication

Figure 2 shows a schematic cross section of the microfluidic layer fabrication and bonding to the silicon chip. We used a 70% thiol excess OSTE polymer (OSTE-70) [13

13. C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 11, 3136–3147 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for the microfluidic layer. Along with the general OSTE properties discussed above, OSTE-70 provides an excess of thiol that permits a strong bond to a silanized silicon surface [14

14. F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 12, 3032–3035 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2 A schematic cross-section of the fabrication of the OSTE microfluidic layer and its bonding to a photonic silicon chip: (a) OSTE-70 is poured into a PDMS mold. (b) A UV cure through a glass mask polymerizes exposed parts by a thiol-ene reaction. (c) The fluidic and optical vias are developed in butyl acetate. (d) A silanized silicon photonic chip is then aligned and bonded to the fluidic layer and cured for 10 min at 70 °C.

The OSTE-70 was mixed in a ratio of functional groups of 1.7:1, pentaerythritol tetrakis (2-mercaptoacetate) and triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione respectively (Sigma-Aldrich). We added 0.1% (by mass) of the photoinitiator ethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphenylphosphinate (BASF AG, Germany).

We poured the OSTE-70 prepolymer into a PDMS mold defining the chip outline and fluid connectors (Fig. 2(a)), and then sandwiched the polymer between the PDMS and a glass mask. The glass mask contains chromium patterns that define vias, and 50 μm thick SU8 reliefs that define microchannels, and thus acts simultaneously as a mold and a photolithography mask (Fig. 2(b)). The chromium patterns for fluidic connections on the glass mask were aligned by eye to the connector molds in the PDMS mold. After a 13 s UV exposure at 13 mW/cm2, using a collimated NUV lightsource with wavelength peaks at 365, 405, and 436 nm (OAI, USA), the OSTE layer was released and subsequently developed in butyl acetate for 30 s (Fig. 2(c)). During development, unexposed prepolymer dissolves, leaving open vias for optical and fluidic connections, as seen in the photographs in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 (a) A photograph of the ring resonator chip. In the magnified image, the surface grating couplers of a ring resonator sensor device are visible. (b) The design of one of the ring resonator sensors fabricated in the silicon chip and the OSTE microchannel dimensions. (c) The measurement setup, with connected optical and fluidic ports.

We functionalized the surface of the silicon photonic chip by dipping it for 10 min into 5% (by mass) of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (Sigma-Aldrich) in toluene. We dried the chips for 10 min at 70 °C, and thereafter aligned the microfluidic layer to the chips using a long working distance microscope objective and a micropositioning stage, followed by bonding. The bonding takes advantage of the excess thiol functional groups on the OSTE surface that covalently bond the fluidic layer to the silicon chip, by a click reaction [16

16. B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie 139, 137–140 (2008). [CrossRef]

] during 10 min at 70 °C (Fig. 2(d)). We have already reported a reduction of the bond time down to 5 min and temperature down to 37 °C using this method [14

14. F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 12, 3032–3035 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. As illustrated in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), the optical vias are separated by only 75 μm wide bond areas from the 100 μm wide microfluidic channel. This tight spacing allows grating coupler separation of only 500 μm, thus reducing the required wafer footprint of the silicon photonics. Due to the limited accuracy of punching, punched vias in PDMS are commonly separated by close to 1 mm [20

20. E. P. Kartalov and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic device reads up to four consecutive base pairs in DNA sequencing-by-synthesis,” Nucleic Acids Research 32, 2873–2879 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. PDMS via to channel spacing down to 200 μm has been recently shown using a polymerization inhibition technique [21

21. C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 1050–1057 (2010). [CrossRef]

], but this method leaves the PDMS surface unpolymerized, and has only been used to perforate thin membranes and not combined with connector molding, as shown here.

A particular feature of the OSTE-70 is its low glass transition temperature of 37 °C [14

14. F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 12, 3032–3035 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. This allows us to safely unbond the OSTE layer by raising the temperature to 50 °C and pealing the layer off the silicon surface. This permits reuse of the silicon chips. For permanent bonding, an OSTE formulation with a higher glass transition temperature can be used [13

13. C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 11, 3136–3147 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Optical measurements and results

To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated chip for refractive index based sensing, we measured the resonance wavelength shifts of a silicon photonic ring resonator sensor (40 μm diameter [9

9. M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 19, 3592–3598 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), upon the injection of a dilution series of ethanol and methanol in water. The measurement setup is shown in Fig. 3(c). One fluidic port is connected to a syringe pump in suction mode and samples are introduced by pipetting into the other connector. With 100 μm wide and 50 μm high microchannels above the 40 μm diameter ring, the minimum required sample volume for refractive index measurement is below one nanoliter. After alignment of the optical fibers with the grating couplers, light emitted from a laser source is coupled into the chip, and thus the resonance peaks can be observed with a wavelength domain component analyzer (Agilent Technologies 86082A).

We mixed ethanol and methanol in DI water at different concentrations, yielding six solutions with a range of refractive indexes from 1.333 to 1.358 RIU [22

22. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics(CRC, 2008).

]. We flowed the samples through the chip at a flow rate of 3.5 μL/min, with a DI water flush between each of them. The resonance shifts observed for the ethanol solutions are shown in Fig. 4(a). We observe a red shift from 1552.8 nm to 1554.1 nm, and an increase in Q from 17200 to 17300, as the ethanol concentration increases. The increase in Q is caused by the reduced infrared absorption of the water in the sample at higher ethanol concentration [23

23. J. E. Bertie and Z. Lan, “Infrared intensities of liquids XX: the intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited, and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O(l) at 25C between 15,000 and 1 cm-1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1047–1057 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(b) shows the measured resonance wavelength shift for all the samples, as a function of refractive index. The slopes of the linear fits for ethanol and methanol coincide, yielding a volume refractive index sensitivity of 50.5 nm/RIU, in good agreement with previously reported similar devices [5

5. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although the slopes for both solutes are consistent, we observe a slight offset, most likely due to a difference in temperature around 10°C between the two solution series.

Fig. 4 (a) Resonance spectra for different concentrations of ethanol in water. The red shift increases as the ethanol concentration increases. (b) The measured resonance wavelength shift shows a linear dependence on the refractive index of the injected solution.

4. Conclusions

We have presented a novel one-step microfluidic integration technique for silicon photonic waveguide based sensors with surface grating couplers. Using the lithographic capability of the OSTE polymer, we combine lithography and molding to enable the integration of photolithographed vias for optical probing and microfluidic channels in a single step. Moreover, dry bonding of OSTE to silanized silicon photonic chips is compatible with biofunctionalized surfaces. We show leakage free bonding to patterned silicon, together with refractive index measurements using a grating coupled ring resonator sensor chip, fabricated by these means. By using this process, extendable to the wafer scale, we can match the size scale of the OSTE based microfluidics to the current size scale of label-free photonic biosensors.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the Swedish Research Council ( B0460801), the Göran Gustafsson Foundation, and the European Research Council ( 267528).

References and links

1.

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir 24, 13399–13405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. Kodadek, “Protein microarrays: prospects and problems,” Chemistry & Biology 8, 105–115 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 1294–1301 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature 475, 348–352 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schmid, “Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response,” Opt. Lett. 33, 596–598 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A 5, 453+ (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 19, 3592–3598 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 225–235 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 11, 3136–3147 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip 12, 3032–3035 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

16.

B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie 139, 137–140 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

18.

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781. [CrossRef]

19.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Saharil, A. Mola Romero, N. Sandström, R. Z. Shafagh, W. van der Wijngaart, T. Haraldsson, and K. B. Gylfason, “Integration of polymer microfluidic channels, vias, and connectors with Silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE,” in “17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1613–1616.

20.

E. P. Kartalov and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic device reads up to four consecutive base pairs in DNA sequencing-by-synthesis,” Nucleic Acids Research 32, 2873–2879 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 1050–1057 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics(CRC, 2008).

23.

J. E. Bertie and Z. Lan, “Infrared intensities of liquids XX: the intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited, and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O(l) at 25C between 15,000 and 1 cm-1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1047–1057 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(130.6622) Integrated optics : Subsystem integration and techniques

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 9, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 23, 2013
Published: September 4, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Carlos Errando-Herranz, Farizah Saharil, Albert Mola Romero, Niklas Sandström, Reza Zandi Shafagh, Wouter van der Wijngaart, Tommy Haraldsson, and Kristinn B. Gylfason, "Integration of microfluidics with grating coupled silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE," Opt. Express 21, 21293-21298 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-18-21293


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References

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