OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 10 — Nov. 8, 2013
« Show journal navigation

Simultaneous generation of sub-20 fs deep and vacuum ultraviolet pulses in a single filamentation cell and application to time-resolved photoelectron imaging

Takuya Horio, Roman Spesyvtsev, and Toshinori Suzuki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 19, pp. 22423-22428 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.022423


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1537 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Sub-20 fs pulses of the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics of a Ti:sapphire laser are simultaneously generated using cascaded four-wave mixing in filamentation propagation of the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic pulses in Ne gas. Reflective optics under vacuum are employed after the four-wave mixing to minimize material dispersion of the optical pulses. The cross-correlation between 198 and 159 nm pulses of 18 fs is achieved without dispersion compensation. This new light source is applied to time-resolved photoelectron imaging of carbon disulfide (CS2).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

There are increasing demands of ultrashort pulses in the vacuum UV and soft X-ray regions for various scientific and industrial applications. Thus, new light sources, such as free electron lasers and high harmonic generation systems, have been developed and continuously improved over the last two decades.

Non-resonant four-wave mixing in filamentation is an alternative method to generate vacuum UV radiation at high repetition rates (kHz) [1

1. P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16183–16192 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. M. Ghotbi, P. Trabs, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of tunable sub-45 femtosecond pulses by noncollinear four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 486–488 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although the laser wavelengths generated by this method so far are longer than 140 nm, shorter output wavelengths are expected for this method. The prime advantages of this method are its simplicity and efficiency. The method only requires a temporal and spatial overlap of intense femtosecond laser pulses in a rare gas cell. The intense laser pulse alters the local refractive index of the gas and self-focuses, which causes ionization of the gas. Since the ionized gas species reverses the spatial gradient of the refractive index with respect to that of the neutral gas, the overall effect enables propagation of a collimated laser pulse over the Rayleigh length [7

7. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 73–75 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When two-color femtosecond pulses are introduced, even if each laser pulse is not sufficiently intense to create filamentation, cooperative interaction between the two-color fields and the gas medium can produce filamentation [8

8. T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063822 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Alignment of two laser beams in a gas cell is considerably easier than into a narrow hollow fiber. The physics of the four-wave mixing process in filamentation is not identical with that in a hollow fiber [9

9. L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013601 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as manifested by different gas-pressure dependencies [8

8. T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063822 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Intensity clamping and mode cleaning effects of the filamentation provide stable and spatially clean output pulses [10

10. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. By controlling the laser peak power and gas pressure one can avoid multiple filaments that cause beam break-up and pointing instability. Pulse energies from several hundred nJ to several μJ are obtained by filamentation four-wave mixing at 1 kHz.

2. Experiment

When the ω and 2ω pulses overlap temporally and spatially, a bright filament (plasma column) with the length of ca. 120 mm was created. We used a pinhole instead of an output window for the filamentation cell in order to create efficient differential pumping and transmit the deep and vacuum UV pulses generated by four-wave mixing. The pinhole was made by the filament itself. We placed a flat aluminum disk (t = 1.5 mm) at the end of the filamentation cell, and let the laser beam drill a through-hole. The subsequent laser pulses are transmitted through this hole (ca. 0.1 mmϕ). Behind the pinhole, a narrow channel (1.25 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length) and an aperture (3 mmϕ) were installed for differential pumping, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The pressure of neon gas in the gas cell was ~3.7 × 102 Torr. The neon gas leaking through the pinhole was evacuated with a dry pump (580 L/min). The pressure in this first differential pumping section was below 3.0 × 10−1 Torr. The region between the channel and the aperture was evacuated with another dry pump (500 L/min). The flow rate of neon gas was estimated to be 0.5 Torr・L/s.

The laser pulses finally entered a high-vacuum optics chamber that houses an optical delay stage and mirrors. A UV-enhanced aluminum mirror with an aperture of 3 mm diameter was used to spatially separate the central and peripheral parts of the beam. The central part was transmitted through this holed mirror and reflected four times with dielectric mirrors (Layertec) for 5ω in order to attenuate other colors (ω, 2ω, 3ω and 4ω). The peripheral part reflected by the holed mirror was used to sample 3ω or 4ω, using dichroic mirrors. The timing of the 5ω pulse was varied using a vacuum-compatible translational stage with 5 nm resolution (Sigma-tech). The vacuum UV and deep UV pulses were independently focused onto a molecular beam with two Al concave mirrors (r = 1,000 mm). The intersection angle between the vacuum UV and deep UV pulses was estimated to be ca. 1°. The entire optics chamber was evacuated using two turbo molecular pumps (300 L/s) to maintain the pressure below 2 × 10−6 Torr when operating the filamentation gas cell.

The photoelectron imaging apparatus with a doubly-skimmed molecular beam source was employed [13

13. Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys. 132(17), 174302 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with an Even-Lavie pulsed valve [14

14. U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 8068–8071 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Photoelectrons generated by (1 + 1’) resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization of jet-cooled samples were accelerated in an electric field and projected onto a dual microchannel plate (MCP, effective area of 75 mmϕ) backed by a phosphor screen (P46). The linear polarization vectors of the vacuum UV and deep UV pulses were aligned parallel to each other and also set parallel to the MCP detector face [15

15. T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31(2), 265–318 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Photoelectron images were recorded as a function of the delay time between deep UV and vacuum UV pulses and analyzed by pBASEX method [16

16. G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4989–4996 (2004). [CrossRef]

] to obtain time-dependent photoelectron kinetic energy and angular distributions.

3. Results and discussion

The spectra of 3ω, 4ω, and 5ω pulses generated by cascaded four-wave mixing are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical spectra (a) 3ω, (b) 4ω, and (c) 5ω.
. The 5ω spectrum was measured using a spectrometer purged with nitrogen gas. The transform-limited (TL) pulse widths are estimated as 9, 7, and 6 fs for 3ω, 4ω, and 5ω, respectively, by Fourier transform of the observed spectra assuming a constant spectral phase. In this study, we set a pinhole near the end of the filament. The spectra of the pulses were the same using the pinhole and a CaF2 optical window. When the pinhole was set too close to the filament, four-wave mixing efficiency diminished.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Pressure dependence of the measured pulse energies for 3ω (diamonds), 4ω (squares) and 5ω (circles). The energies of the ω and 2ω input beams were 430 and 370 μJ, respectively. The filled/open symbols indicate the energies measured with/without an output pinhole. (b) A typical cross-correlation trace between 4ω and 5ω measured by non-resonant (1 + 1’) two-photon ionization of Xe (circles). The solid line shows a Gaussian with FWHM of 18 fs. The vertical scale corresponds to averaged ion counts per 10 seconds.
compares the pressure dependence of the output pulse energies when using the pinhole and the window. The energies of the ω and 2ω input beams were respectively 430 and 370 μJ. We measured the output energies of 3ω and 4ω using a thermal sensor (3A, Ophir) in air after separating them using a CaF2 prism. The 5ω beam was separated from other colors using three dielectric mirrors for 5ω, and the pulse energy was measured using a vacuum compatible thermal sensor (12A-TEC, Ophir) under vacuum. As for 5ω, contribution of the stray light from the intense ω and 2ω input beams was not negligible, so the stray light was measured by pumping Ne gas out of the cell and subtracted from the energy measured with the Ne gas to evaluate an accurate energy of the 5ω pulse. Accurate measurement of the 5ω pulse energy was difficult at low energies (20~30 nJ) due to thermal drift of the power meter, and their values are not shown here.

As seen in Fig. 3(a), the pulse energies of 3ω and 4ω initially increased with the Ne gas pressure, but they were saturated at ca. 600 Torr. The pulse energy of 5ω reached the maximum at 400 Torr and gradually descended at higher gas pressures. The maximum pulse energy of 5ω obtained using the pinhole was ~100 nJ at a Ne gas pressure of 400 Torr. The typical values of transmittance through the pinhole were ~30, 45, and 40% for 3ω, 4ω, and 5ω, respectively. The losses of the pulse energies are well compensated for by superior pulse characteristics and a simpler setup achieved by the pinhole.

We also examined the spatial modes of the output beams using a Ce:YAG phosphor plate. The spatial profiles of the 3ω and 4ω beams were clean throughout the pressure range from 200 to 700 Torr, even when using the pinhole. On the other hand, the beam mode of 5ω gradually degraded at the gas pressure over 400 Torr to become a non-uniform spatial distribution. Consequently, the transmission of the 5ω pulse through the pinhole diminished at high pressures.

Finally, we demonstrate an application of our new light source to study predissociation dynamics of CS2 from the 1B2(1Σu+) excited state. CS2 is linear in the electronic ground state (1Σg+). Photoexcitation to 1B2(1Σu+) in the wavelength region of 192 – 208 nm makes the molecule a bent (or quasi-linear) structure and induces symmetric stretching (ν1 = 392 cm−1) and bending (ν2 = 426 cm−1) vibrations [17

17. R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys. 79(11), 5219–5227 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. At 198 nm, the molecule is above the barrier for linearity, so that a large bending vibration occurs between the linear and bent geometries. Although the 1B2(1Σu+) state is bound in the linear geometry, it undergoes avoided crossings with the repulsive 1B2(1Πg) state at large bending angles, so that the molecule predissociates into CS(1Σ+) + S(1D) and CS(1Σ+) + S(3P) [18

18. P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 111(12), 5338–5343 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys. 7(8), 612–615 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

In the present work, we employed 5ω (159 nm, 7.8 eV) as a probe pulse and succeeded in observing the wavepacket motions between the turning points. Figure 4(c) shows a 2D map of the photoelectron kinetic energy distributions measured as a function of the pump-probe time delay. The high and low photoelectron-energy signals originate from the linear and bent geometries, respectively. The oscillatory motion of the photoelectron kinetic energy is mainly ascribed to the bending mode. The weak signal in the very low kinetic energy region might be attributed to the wavepacket on the 1B2(1Πg) state accessed by non-adiabatic transition; detailed analysis of the experimental results is now in progress and will be presented elsewhere.

The result clearly demonstrates the necessity of sub-20 fs vacuum UV radiation as a probe pulse in time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of this reaction. A short pulse in the vacuum UV region is also useful as a pump pulse to access higher valence and Rydberg states and explore vacuum UV photochemistry. Other scientific and industrial applications are certainly possible.

References and links

1.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16183–16192 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. Beutler, M. Ghotbi, F. Noack, and I. V. Hertel, “Generation of sub-50-fs vacuum ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1491–1493 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Ghotbi, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of 2.5 μJ vacuum ultraviolet pulses with sub-50 fs duration by noncollinear four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3492–3494 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Beutler, M. Ghotbi, and F. Noack, “Generation of intense sub-20-fs vacuum ultraviolet pulses compressed by material dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3726–3728 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 815–819 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Ghotbi, P. Trabs, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of tunable sub-45 femtosecond pulses by noncollinear four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 486–488 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 73–75 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063822 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013601 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys. 132(17), 174302 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 8068–8071 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31(2), 265–318 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4989–4996 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys. 79(11), 5219–5227 (1983). [CrossRef]

18.

P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 111(12), 5338–5343 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys. 7(8), 612–615 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J. 6(11), 3028–3034 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(300.6500) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, time-resolved
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 17, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 6, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 9, 2013
Published: September 16, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Takuya Horio, Roman Spesyvtsev, and Toshinori Suzuki, "Simultaneous generation of sub-20 fs deep and vacuum ultraviolet pulses in a single filamentation cell and application to time-resolved photoelectron imaging," Opt. Express 21, 22423-22428 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-19-22423


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Zuo, T. Fuji, and T. Suzuki, “Spectral phase transfer to ultrashort UV pulses through four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express18(15), 16183–16192 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Beutler, M. Ghotbi, F. Noack, and I. V. Hertel, “Generation of sub-50-fs vacuum ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1491–1493 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ghotbi, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of 2.5 μJ vacuum ultraviolet pulses with sub-50 fs duration by noncollinear four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3492–3494 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Beutler, M. Ghotbi, and F. Noack, “Generation of intense sub-20-fs vacuum ultraviolet pulses compressed by material dispersion,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3726–3728 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Zuo, T. Fuji, T. Horio, S. Adachi, and T. Suzuki, “Simultaneous generation of ultrashort pulses at 158 and 198 nm in a single filamentation cell by cascaded four-wave mixing in Ar,” Appl. Phys. B108(4), 815–819 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ghotbi, P. Trabs, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of tunable sub-45 femtosecond pulses by noncollinear four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett.38(4), 486–488 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 73–75 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Fuji, T. Suzuki, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multicolor filament,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063822 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(1), 013601 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 477–483 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Suzuki, T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of ultrafast S2→S1 internal conversion through conical intersection in pyrazine,” J. Chem. Phys.132(17), 174302 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, and C. Cossart-Magos, “Cooling of large molecules below 1 K and He clusters formation,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 8068–8071 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic electronic dynamics in gas and liquid phases,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.31(2), 265–318 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, and I. Powis, “Two-dimensional charged particle image inversion using a polar basis function expansion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4989–4996 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. R. J. Hemley, D. G. Leopold, J. L. Roebber, and V. Vaida, “The direct ultraviolet-absorption spectrum of the 1Σg+ → 1B2(1Σu+) transition of jet-cooled CS2,” J. Chem. Phys.79(11), 5219–5227 (1983). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast predissociation and coherent phenomena in CS2 excited by femtosecond laser pulses at 194-207 nm,” J. Chem. Phys.111(12), 5338–5343 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Hockett, C. Z. Bisgaard, O. J. Clarkin, and A. Stolow, “Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 612–615 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Excited-State Dynamics of CS2 Studied by Photoelectron Imaging with a Time Resolution of 22 fs,” Chem. Asian J.6(11), 3028–3034 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited