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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 3 — Apr. 4, 2013
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Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

Nathan R. Gemmell, Aongus McCarthy, Baochang Liu, Michael G. Tanner, Sander D. Dorenbos, Valery Zwiller, Michael S. Patterson, Gerald S. Buller, Brian C. Wilson, and Robert H. Hadfield  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 5005-5013 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.005005


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Abstract

Direct monitoring of singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence is a particularly challenging infrared photodetection problem. 1O2, an excited state of the oxygen molecule, is a crucial intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a low noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detector to record 1O2 luminescence at 1270 nm wavelength from a model photosensitizer (Rose Bengal) in solution. Narrow band spectral filtering and chemical quenching is used to verify the 1O2 signal, and lifetime evolution with the addition of protein is studied. Furthermore, we demonstrate the detection of 1O2 luminescence through a single optical fiber, a marked advance for dose monitoring in clinical treatments such as photodynamic therapy.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Free space singlet oxygen luminescence monitoring

Figure 1(b) shows a schematic of the free-space optical excitation and luminescence collection set up. A 523 nm wavelength pulsed laser source (CrystaLaser 523-500 Nd:YLF, 200 mW average power, 14 kHz repetition rate, 10 ns pulse width) passes through a 520 ± 10 nm bandpass filter to eliminate longer-wavelength pump light, and a 0.5 OD neutral-density filter to reduce the power, before being steered through a 50 mm focal length microscope objective. A dichroic beam splitter (532 nm laser BrightLine®: reflection band 514-532 nm) diverts the beam through a second lens (25.4 mm diameter,75 mm focal length) to produce an expanded (~3 mm diameter, ~50 mW average power) collimated beam directed into the top of a 3 ml quartz cuvette filled with photosensitizer (Rose Bengal). The second plano-convex lens collimates the luminescence light and directs it through the beam splitter. A filter wheel allows selection of one of five 20 nm wide bandpass (BP) filters centered at 1210, 1240, 1270, 1310 and 1340 nm to allow sampling of the infra-red spectrum across the 1O2 luminescence peak and background. Mirrors then steer the light through a 1200 nm longpass (LP) filter (Thorlabs FEL1200, cut-on wavelength 1200 nm) - to further exclude short wavelength photons - and into a 2m long single mode (9 μm core diameter) armored telecom fiber.

Coupled to the fiber is a NbTiN SNSPD with optical cavity-enhanced performance at telecom wavelengths [26

26. M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. N. Doronbos, E. Bermudez Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221109 (2010). [CrossRef]

], housed in a closed-cycle refrigerator (Sumitomo RDK-101D cold head with CNA-11C air-cooled compressor, operating temperature ~3 K) [22

22. R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10846–10853 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The SNSPD has a 70 ps full width at half maximum instrument response function with a Gaussian profile. The detection efficiency and dark count rate of the SNSPD was calibrated as a function of current bias using a gain-switched 1310 nm wavelength diode laser, depolarized and attenuated to deliver much less than one photon per pulse. The detection efficiency was assumed to vary slowly across the wavelength range of the experiment. In photon-starved experiments, the current bias on the SNSPD can be reduced to improve the signal-to-noise; with decreasing bias the dark counts drop by orders of magnitude, whereas the efficiency falls more slowly. In the free space configuration shown in Fig. 1(b), the SNSPD system detection efficiency was 15% (defined from the point where the optical signal is launched into the single mode optical fiber coupled to the SNSPD inside the cryostat) and the background (or dark) count rate was 60 counts per second (cps).

An electrical synchronization pulse from the laser gives the start signal of a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) hardware module (Picoquant HydraHarp with 4_ps time binning and 20 ps FWHM timing jitter). The SNSPD output is amplified by a room temperature amplifier chain (3 dB, roll off 580 MHz) and acts as the stop channel. With the laser running at a constant pulse repetition rate of 14 kHz, the accumulation of many detector events allows generation of histograms (Fig. 1(c)) relating the time between a laser pulse and a subsequent detection event.

Since the singlet oxygen is generated by energy transfer from the photosensitizer triplet state, it has been demonstrated [15

15. M. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Direct near-infrared luminescence detection of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in cells in vitro and tissues in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(4), 382–391 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that the concentration of 1O2 at a time, t, following a short illumination pulse at time t = 0 is given by
[O12](t)=Nσ[S0]ΦDτDτTτD[exp(tτT)exp(tτD)],
(1)
where N is the number of photons in the pulse incident on the sample, [S0] is the ground-state photosensitizer concentration, σ is the photosensitizer ground-state absorption cross-section, ΦD is the 1O2 quantum yield of the photosensitizer, τT is the photosensitizer triplet-state lifetime, and τD is the lifetime of 1O2. Thus, after subtracting the background signal due to other sources of near-infrared emission, the histogram with the 1270 nm filter should fit Eq. (1) [15

15. M. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Direct near-infrared luminescence detection of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in cells in vitro and tissues in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(4), 382–391 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], whereas the histograms at the other wavelengths should have different form (with faint 1O2 luminescence contributions in the 1240 and 1310 nm bands).

Figure 1(c) shows representative histograms acquired from RB in each of the 5 wavelength bands. A strong initial peak (duration ~1 μs) is present in all cases, due to short lifetime broadband fluorescence from the sample and leakage of a small fraction of the laser pump light into the detector channel. However, a distinct longer-lived second peak with a broad maximum at ~3.5 μs is observed only with the 1270 nm bandpass filter in place: this is the signature of singlet oxygen luminescence. Its dependence on the RB concentration is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Total counts within 3 min histograms (after fluorescence peak and background subtraction), using 1270 nm band pass filtering, for increasing RB concentration. The reduction at the highest concentration is likely due to much higher attenuation of the excitation light by the increased opacity of the photosensitizer sample. (b) TCSPC histograms recorded from Rose Bengal (0.257_μM) with the 1270 nm bandpass filter, before and after addition of 2 M sodium azide (3 min acquisition time, 0.1024_μs bin size). The first 1.3 μs corresponding to the initial fluorescence peak is ignored. The red curve is the least-squares fit to Eq. (1), for lifetimes τT = 2.3 ± 0.3 μs and τD = 3.0 ± 0.3 μs, taking into account a constant offset due to background counts (C = 39 counts per bin).
. After initial fluorescence peak and background subtraction, a luminescence photon count rate of 134 counts per second (cps) was achieved with 100 μg/ml RB. The background (dark) count rate was ~60 cps, and the detection efficiency was ~15%. Equation (1) was least-squares fitted to the time-resolved histograms, after removal of the initial fluorescence peak (using A = Nσ[S0D, τT, τD, and a constant offset, C, as fitting parameters), giving values of τT = 2.3 ± 0.3 μs and τD = 3.0 ± 0.3 μs. This 1O2 lifetime is consistent with typical literature values in an aqueous, biomolecule-free environment [15

15. M. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Direct near-infrared luminescence detection of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in cells in vitro and tissues in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(4), 382–391 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. M. T. Jarvi, M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for photodynamic therapy: current status, challenges and future prospects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1198–1210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Optical fiber based singlet oxygen luminescence detection

Experimental challenges in this configuration included optimization of the pump light delivery and alignment of the light collection scheme. While about 60% (~30 mW) of the free-space pump power was delivered to the sample, the collected signal was approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than with free-space collection, requiring long acquisition times (~30-60 min) to obtain a reliable measurement. In order to improve the signal-to-noise we reduced the current bias on the SNSPD [23

23. M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031109 (2006). [CrossRef]

], operating at 5% detection efficiency and a background (dark) count rate of <10 cps. Under these conditions, the system detection rate of the nominal 1O2 signal was estimated to be ~0.6 cps. There is considerable scope for improving this setup to drive down the acquisition time. Thus, the efficiency of the luminescence light collection could be increased considerably by using a larger-diameter fiber with high numerical aperture. In-fiber filtering could be used to eliminate the losses in the free-space gap: this would require using several fibers, for example placed in a ring around a central delivery fiber, as has been used in NIR Raman spectroscopy in vivo [27

27. M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopy system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 131–142 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Parallel signal collection using multiple detectors in a single package would then be an attractive option. Improving the match between the excitation wavelength and the photosensitiser absorption spectrum will also proportionally increase the luminescence signal: in the present experiments, the RB absorption coefficient at the available 523 nm laser wavelength is only ~30% of the peak value at ~558_nm. Finally, the SNSPD technology evaluated here is itself advancing rapidly [24

24. C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconductor nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and next-generation detectors with near 100% efficiency are under development [28

28. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, T. Gerrets, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” arXiv:1209.5774.

].

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of detecting singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence using a superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD). In our initial experiments free-space light collection allows the luminescence to be coupled into the single-mode optical fiber connected to the detector, with intervening macroscopic bandpass filters to sample the NIR spectrum, enabling the broad background signal to be subtracted. The signal response to the addition of a singlet oxygen quencher (NaN3) and of protein (BSA), and the ability to make high-resolution time-resolved measurements give a high level of confidence that the signal is due to 1O2 luminescence emission. This is critical, since there are many confounding factors that may give misleading NIR signals, especially in cells and tissues [18

18. M. T. Jarvi, M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for photodynamic therapy: current status, challenges and future prospects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1198–1210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. While only a single model photosensitizer (Rose Bengal, RB) has been used in these first proof-of-principle experiments, the findings should be applicable to any 1O2-generating (i.e. Type II) photodynamic drug. Excitingly, we have successfully extended SOLD for the first time to single optical fiber luminescence collection. The signal strength is then substantially reduced compared to the free-space configuration, but there are numerous technical improvements that could substantially address this loss, both in the optical design [27

27. M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopy system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 131–142 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and in the detector performance [28

28. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, T. Gerrets, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” arXiv:1209.5774.

,29

29. V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. While the possibility of fiberoptic or lightguide collection of the luminescence has been investigated by others, these efforts have either used large diameter probes [30

30. J. Yamamoto, S. Yamamoto, T. Hirano, S. Li, M. Koide, E. Kohno, M. Okada, C. Inenaga, T. Tokuyama, N. Yokota, S. Terakawa, and H. Namba, “Monitoring of singlet oxygen is useful for predicting the photodynamic effects in the treatment for experimental glioma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(23), 7132–7139 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and/or have not been in the context of time-correlated single photon counting [31

31. S. G. Davis and S. Lee, “Singlet oxygen production and dosimetry for photodynamic therapy,” U.S. Patent 0209125A1 (Aug. 16, 2012).

]. As shown recently, the latter is critical for accurate SOLD measurements, because of unknown and varying background contributions to the NIR signal [32

32. M. T. Jarvi, M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The influence of oxygen depletion and photosensitizer triplet-state dynamics during photodynamic therapy on accurate singlet oxygen luminescence monitoring and analysis of treatment dose response,” Photochem. Photobiol. 87(1), 223–234 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The importance of this advance lies in the potential for greatly widening the applications of SOLD to encompass effective in vivo SOLD monitoring even in a clinical context: for example, fiberoptic-based detection would allow 1O2 measurements in minimally-invasive endoscopic and intraoperative treatments, which are commonly used in photodynamic therapy of solid tumors. Furthermore, one can envisage placing the fiberoptic tip directly (interstitially) into the tumor or adjacent normal tissues to monitor the 1O2 generation at critical sites, either to ensure that adequate PDT dose is delivered (e.g. to the base of the tumor) and/or to reduce the risk of collateral damage to neighboring critical normal tissues (e.g. in the brain or, in the case of PDT treatment of prostate cancer, the rectal wall). Finally, 1O2 luminescence imaging could be possible using 2D SNSPD arrays [33

33. M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, S. A. Hamilton, K. K. Berggren, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-order temporal coherences of chaotic and laser light,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1430–1437 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,34

34. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This would reveal the heterogeneity of 1O2 generation within the target tissue, which is important to ensure complete response: the potential value of this concept has been demonstrated using the conventional NIR PMT detector with raster scanning of the laser beam [17

17. M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, A. Giles, and B. C. Wilson, “Imaging of photodynamically generated singlet oxygen luminescence in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(4), 941–943 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but only very low resolution images were possible in a reasonable time, since a significant per-pixel dwell time is required to collect the time-resolved signal. To conclude, we believe that the demonstration presented here, using advanced NIR detector technology to enable fiber-based SOLD for the first time, is a significant step forward for 1O2 luminescence detection, and will have a profound impact in applications such as PDT.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Colin Rickman and Professor Rory Duncan at Heriot-Watt University for access to sample preparation facilities. RHH and BCW gratefully acknowledge the award of a Distinguished Visitor grant from the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), with matching support from the Heriot-Watt University Life Sciences Interface Research Theme. RHH and GSB acknowledge support from the EPSRC, UK (Grant award EP/F048041/1). RHH acknowledges a Royal Society University Research Fellowship. BCW and MSP acknowledge support from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute. VZ thanks FOM (the Netherlands) for support.

References and links

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W. Popp, V. V. Tuchin, A. Chiou, and S. H. Heinemann, eds., in Handbook of Biophotonics (Wiley-VCH, 2012)

2.

W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer, 2005).

3.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316–330 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. M. Hoffman, “The multiple uses of fluorescent proteins to visualize cancer in vivo,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 5(10), 796–806 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Yang, G. Luo, P. Karnchanaphanurach, T. M. Louie, I. Rech, S. Cova, L. Xun, and X. S. Xie, “Protein conformational dynamics probed by single-molecule electron transfer,” Science 302(5643), 262–266 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

http://jp.hamamatsu.com/products/sensor-etd/pd002/index_en.html

8.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

9.

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single-photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Schweitzer and R. Schmidt, “Physical mechanisms of generation and deactivation of singlet oxygen,” Chem. Rev. 103(5), 1685–1758 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

P. R. Ogilby, “Singlet oxygen: there is indeed something new under the sun,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(8), 3181–3209 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth and T. Hasan, “Mechanisms of action of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(3), 195–214 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Direct near-infrared luminescence detection of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in cells in vitro and tissues in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(4), 382–391 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. J. Niedre, A. J. Secord, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “In vitro tests of the validity of singlet oxygen luminescence measurements as a dose metric in photodynamic therapy,” Cancer Res. 63(22), 7986–7994 (2003). [PubMed]

17.

M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, A. Giles, and B. C. Wilson, “Imaging of photodynamically generated singlet oxygen luminescence in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(4), 941–943 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. T. Jarvi, M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for photodynamic therapy: current status, challenges and future prospects,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1198–1210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Jiménez-Banzo, X. Ragàs, P. Kapusta, and S. Nonell, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 7. Photon counting vs. analog time-resolved singlet oxygen phosphorescence detection,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 7(9), 1003–1010 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001). [CrossRef]

22.

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10846–10853 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031109 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconductor nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. N. Doronbos, E. Bermudez Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221109 (2010). [CrossRef]

27.

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopy system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 131–142 (1997). [CrossRef]

28.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, T. Gerrets, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” arXiv:1209.5774.

29.

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012). [CrossRef]

30.

J. Yamamoto, S. Yamamoto, T. Hirano, S. Li, M. Koide, E. Kohno, M. Okada, C. Inenaga, T. Tokuyama, N. Yokota, S. Terakawa, and H. Namba, “Monitoring of singlet oxygen is useful for predicting the photodynamic effects in the treatment for experimental glioma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(23), 7132–7139 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

S. G. Davis and S. Lee, “Singlet oxygen production and dosimetry for photodynamic therapy,” U.S. Patent 0209125A1 (Aug. 16, 2012).

32.

M. T. Jarvi, M. J. Niedre, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The influence of oxygen depletion and photosensitizer triplet-state dynamics during photodynamic therapy on accurate singlet oxygen luminescence monitoring and analysis of treatment dose response,” Photochem. Photobiol. 87(1), 223–234 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, S. A. Hamilton, K. K. Berggren, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-order temporal coherences of chaotic and laser light,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1430–1437 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
(170.5180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photodynamic therapy
(170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence
(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors
(300.6280) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
(350.5130) Other areas of optics : Photochemistry

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: November 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 17, 2013
Published: February 21, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Nathan R. Gemmell, Aongus McCarthy, Baochang Liu, Michael G. Tanner, Sander D. Dorenbos, Valery Zwiller, Michael S. Patterson, Gerald S. Buller, Brian C. Wilson, and Robert H. Hadfield, "Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector," Opt. Express 21, 5005-5013 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-5005


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References

  1. W. Popp, V. V. Tuchin, A. Chiou, and S. H. Heinemann, eds., in Handbook of Biophotonics (Wiley-VCH, 2012)
  2. W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer, 2005).
  3. J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Anal. Biochem.202(2), 316–330 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Hoffman, “The multiple uses of fluorescent proteins to visualize cancer in vivo,” Nat. Rev. Cancer5(10), 796–806 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Yang, G. Luo, P. Karnchanaphanurach, T. M. Louie, I. Rech, S. Cova, L. Xun, and X. S. Xie, “Protein conformational dynamics probed by single-molecule electron transfer,” Science302(5643), 262–266 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(23), 4155–4166 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. http://jp.hamamatsu.com/products/sensor-etd/pd002/index_en.html
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