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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

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  • Vol. 8, Iss. 4 — May. 22, 2013
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Subwavelength confined terahertz waves on planar waveguides using metallic gratings

Borwen You, Ja-Yu Lu, Wei-Lun Chang, Chin-Ping Yu, Tze-An Liu, and Jin-Long Peng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 6009-6019 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.006009


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Abstract

A terahertz plasmonic waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using a plastic ribbon waveguide integrated with a diffraction metal grating to approach subwavelength-scaled confinement and long-distance delivery. Appropriately adjusting the metal-thickness and the periodical slit width of a grating greatly improves both guiding ability and field confinement in the hybrid waveguide structure. The measured lateral decay length of the bound terahertz surface waves on the hybrid waveguide can be reduced to less than λ/4 after propagating a waveguide of around 50mm-long in length. The subwavelength-confined field is potentially advantageous to biomolecular sensing or membrane detection because of the long interaction length between the THz field and analytes.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, new concepts for the engineering of metal surfaces to generate surface plasmons have been proposed to confine weakly guided THz Sommerfeld-waves, including the two-dimensional hole array [6

6. C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008). [CrossRef]

], periodical slits [7

7. W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6216–6226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and various patterns of metamaterials [8

8. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

10

10. A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The structured-metal surfaces can be considered as a material with a high dielectric constant that enables parts of THz-EM fields to penetrate into the patterned metal-surface in a way that resembles the behavior of SPPs in an optical regime to enhance THz lateral confinement [8

8. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Various geometry-controlled SPPs, expressed as spoof SPPs, are theoretically demonstrated with a strong THz-field confinement on the corrugated metal surfaces [11

11. S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the spoof SPPs usually suffer from severe attenuation due to the high confinement of the THz-field causing the transmitted amplitudes to quickly decay [12

12. L. Shen, X. Chen, and T. J. Yang, “Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on periodically corrugated metal surfaces,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3326–3333 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For example, a metallic waveguide has been theoretically demonstrated to guide THz-SPPs with a lateral decay length of around 0.2λ, but the proven propagation length is as short as several wavelengths [13

13. D. Martin-Cano, O. Quevedo-Teruel, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Waveguided spoof surface plasmons with deep-subwavelength lateral confinement,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4635–4637 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, a low loss plasmonic waveguide, composed of one-dimensional (1D) periodic slits on a metal sheet, has recently been demonstrated to guide THz-SPPs for a long distance of around 60mm at 0.3THz. However, the guided field is loosely bounded with a mode size about three times larger than the THz-wavelength [7

7. W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6216–6226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where the field confinement is not sufficient for sensing or imaging applications. To achieve subwavelength confinement and long-distance delivery of THz spoof-SPPs in a waveguide, it is essential to overcome the coupling loss between the SPPs- and waveguide-modes resulting from the waveguide-index mismatch, along with the extremely high absorption loss of the highly confined THz surface waves in metal structures [14

14. A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy, “Design criteria for microstructured-optical-fiber-based surface-plasmon-resonance sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1423–1429 (2007). [CrossRef]

,15

15. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. M. Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi-mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 56(3), 189–197 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. To decrease the coupling loss, a diffraction metal grating with periodic corrugations or slits on a metal surface is demonstrated to easily couple free-space THz radiation into THz-SPPs with a coupling efficiency as high as 20% [16

16. M. Martl, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Excitation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on etched groove gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(3), 554–558 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and the effective index of a grating approaches that of air. This diffraction-grating-based structure can be multi-functionally manipulated to control THz SPPs for SP reflection, SP beam splitting, SP focusing, etc [17

17. L. S. Mukina, M. M. Nazarov, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Propagation of THz plasmon pulse on corrugated and flat metal surface,” Surf. Sci. 600(20), 4771–4776 (2006). [CrossRef]

19

19. G. Gaborit, D. Armand, J. L. Coutaz, M. Nazarov, and A. Shkurinov, “Excitation and focusing of terahertz surface plasmons using a grating coupler with elliptically curved grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231108 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Integrating the structure of a diffraction grating with a low loss THz waveguide effectively excites the SPP mode from a propagated waveguide mode due to easy control of index/phase matches between the two modes [17

17. L. S. Mukina, M. M. Nazarov, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Propagation of THz plasmon pulse on corrugated and flat metal surface,” Surf. Sci. 600(20), 4771–4776 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and prevents severe SP coupling loss [14

14. A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy, “Design criteria for microstructured-optical-fiber-based surface-plasmon-resonance sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1423–1429 (2007). [CrossRef]

,15

15. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. M. Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi-mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 56(3), 189–197 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. To further confine THz-SPPs on the metal surface, a thin dielectric layer can be attached to the metallic surface or dielectric materials can be inserted in the periodic slits of the patterned metal structure, thus greatly reducing the mode size of the THz-SPPs based on the increased effectiveness of the waveguide-index [20

20. M. Gong, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz surface wave collapse on coated metal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17088–17101 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This method does not result in increased metallic absorption loss, thus allowing for long-distance propagation.

2. Configuration of the planar hybrid plasmonic waveguide

The frequency of the reflected THz surface waves from the diffraction grating can be determined by the momentum conservation relation,
Kin+KΛ=KR
(1)
where the vectors of Kin, KR and KΛ are, respectively, the propagation constants of the input and reflected THz waves along the ribbon waveguide as well as a grating-wave-vector. The grating-wave-vector, KΛ, is equal to 2πm/Λ, where m and Λ are, respectively, the Bragg diffraction order and lattice constant of periodically spaced slits. The directions of propagation constants, Kin and KR, are opposite but have the same value, 2πνneff/C, for THz waves with a frequency of ν, propagated along the ribbon waveguide, where C and neff are, respectively, the speed of light in a vacuum and a waveguide-effective-refractive index. Therefore, the diffraction grating can reflect THz waves exactly at Bragg frequencies in different orders, derived as mC/2neffΛ, based on the momentum conservation relation.

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Power transmittance of a 50mm-long grating waveguide with different grating thicknesses and the same grating structure. (b) THz transmittance of a 50mm-long integrated grating waveguide with different slit-widths but the same lattice constant of 1.5mm and metal thickness of 200μm.
shows the THz power transmittance after propagating the 50mm-long grating waveguides with different metal thicknesses. The transmittance is obtained from comparing the transmission power behind of the 220mm-long ribbon waveguide with and without attaching the metal gratings. In Fig. 2(a), the THz transmission spectrum from the waveguide with a 100μm-thick grating is broad and the transmittance is rather high. However, the deliverable spectral ranges of the 200μm- and 400μm-thick grating waveguides, defined as a transmittance larger than 0.1, are restricted in the low frequency ranges, with respective bandwidths of less than 0.285THz and 0.250THz. In addition, two transmission-dips around 0.300THz and 0.400THz are observed for all the three gratings, caused by Bragg reflections in the periodical slits of the grating waveguide under the phase-matching condition and corresponding to the 3rd- and 4th-order Bragg frequencies for the 1.5mm-long lattice constant. The spectral depths of these transmission dips increase with the metal thickness, but the dip-positions are red-shifted as shown in Fig. 2(a). For example, the 3rd- and 4th-order transmission dips for the 100μm-thick grating waveguide are, respectively, at 0.300THz and 0.400THz and both exhibit shallow spectral depths compared with those for the 200μm- and 400μm-thick grating waveguides. For the 200μm-thick grating, the two transmission dips are shifted respectively to 0.296THz and 0.396THz with a lower transmittance of about 0.005 and 0.002. When the metal thickness is increased to 400μm, the transmission dips are further red-shifted to 0.280THz and 0.380THz, with the smallest transmittances of about 0.003 and 5x10−5. The decreased transmission and red-shift effect of the minimum transmittance for large grating thicknesses both result from the raised scattering cross section [28

28. J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] because the large slit-depth (or the increased metal thickness) causes stronger scattering and also deflects the lower-frequency THz-waves. In Section 3, we show that, as they approach the transmission-dip frequencies, the deflected THz waves are more easily coupled into the grating structure to form the confined surface waves.

In the following, we discuss the THz spectral dependence on different slit-widths of the grating. The 200μm-thick grating is used as an example in which the slit-width of the grating is changed from 1.0mm to 0.5mm based on the same lattice constant of 1.5mm, with their transmittances compared in Fig. 2(b). The transmittances of the 3rd- and 4th-order Bragg frequencies at 0.296THz and 0.396THz are both clearly raised about one order of magnitude in the grating waveguide with 0.5mm-long slit-widths, as compared with 1mm-long slit-widths. This indicates that the wider slit-width causes the larger scattering cross section, resulting in reduced transmittance. Based on the measured results, the larger slit-width of the hybrid grating waveguide makes it easier to transfer considerably more evanescent power from the ribbon-waveguide-mode into the THz-SPP modes that are confined on the periodical metal structure (see Section 3 below). Therefore, suitably tailoring the geometrical parameters of the hybrid waveguide, such as metal thickness and slit-width, allows for the coupling of the ribbon-guided THz-waves to the tightly bound surface waves on the patterned metal surface.

3. Subwavelength confinement on the metal grating waveguide

The phase information of different grating waveguides can be extracted by Fourier transformation of the time-domain oscillation in Figs. 3(b)-3(d), and compared with that of the blank ribbon waveguide in Fig. 3(a) to obtain the induced phase difference, ΔΦ, of the grating waveguide shown in Fig. 3(e). The phase difference is contributed only from the 50mm-long metallic grating without including the plastic ribbon waveguide, because it is obtained from the relation ΔΦ = ΦGBlank, where ΦG and ΦBlank are, respectively, the phases of the THz electric-field propagation through a 220mm-long ribbon waveguide with and without the attachment of a 50mm-long metallic grating. The relation between the phase difference (Δϕ) and refractive-index variations (Δn) is defined as Δn = C.Δϕ/(2π.ν.L), where C, ν, L, are, respectively, the speed of light in a vacuum, the frequency of a THz wave, and the length of a metal grating. From the above relation, the phase difference spectrum of Fig. 3(e) for different metal gratings can be transferred to the refractive-index-variation spectrum as shown in Fig. 3(f). In Figs. 3(e) and 3(f), the phase difference (ΔΦ) and refractive-index-variation (Δn) from the 100μm-thick grating are both smaller than those from the 200μm- and 400μm-thick gratings and increased slowly with the THz-wave frequency. The positive value of Δϕ results from the positive value of Δn because the effective refractive index of the hybrid waveguide is higher than that of the bare ribbon waveguide. For the 200μm-thick grating in Fig. 3(e), the zero-phase difference at 0.300THz and 0.400THz represents ΦBlank = ΦG, which is phase-matching between the input THz ribbon-waveguide mode (Kin) and the reflected SPP-modes of the hybrid-waveguide (KR) via the periodic structure of the metal grating (KΛ), as described in Eq. (1). In other words, at these frequencies of zero-phase difference, the transmitted ribbon-waveguide-modes are completely transferred to the reflected SPP-modes through the Bragg reflection of the metal grating, which corresponds to the zero-refractive-index-variation shown in Fig. 3(f) for index matching between the two modes. In the 400μm-thick grating waveguide, Figs. 3(e) and 3(f) respectively show the zero phase-difference and refractive-index-variation. The phase matching condition between the ribbon-waveguide and the SP modes also occurs around 0.300THz, but its spectral width between 0.287~0.300THz is broader than that of the 200μm-thick grating. The phase information of the 400μm-thick grating beyond 0.400THz is not available because, at such frequencies, the guided THz-field is nearly dissipated after the 50mm-long propagation, resulting in an extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, the measured spectral positions of the phase-matching frequencies (or zero-phase differences) are dependent on the grating periods, and the spectral range of phase-matching is increased with the slit-depth of the metallic waveguide due to the larger scattering cross section. This is the reason why the 100μm-thick metal grating has difficulty coupling the weakly bound ribbon waveguide modes to the periodical metal structure to generate confined surface waves at the frequency approaching phase matching point, as illustrated in Fig. 2(a), although a small amount of the THz field is indeed reflected from the 100μm-thick grating surface at Bragg frequencies. In other words, a large portion of the THz field still transmits and is weakly bound around the 100μm-thick grating waveguide, where a small amount of the field is coupled inside the periodical metal slits.

As shown in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f), the high phase-difference results in the high effective-refractive indices of the grating waveguide. Consequently, the effective mode indices of the metal grating are slightly larger than those of a blank ribbon waveguide and increase with frequency except at phase-matching frequencies. Thus, the high effective refractive indices lead to low phase velocities. Based on waveguide theory [6

6. C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008). [CrossRef]

], the high effective-refractive indices of the waveguide concentrate EM fields in the waveguide core to form a smaller spatial mode. As a result, THz waves along the metal grating resemble propagation on a dielectric waveguide except at phase-matching frequencies. Among the three gratings, the 400μm-thick grating has the largest scattering cross section, causing the largest phase difference and effective waveguide index at frequency ranges of 0.300~0.360THz and less than 0.260THz, as indicated in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f). Compared with the 200μm-thick grating, the 400μm-thick grating thus generates more closely-confined THz SPPs.

Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 Simulated cross sections of power-distribution at (a) 0.278THz-, (b) 0.300THz-, and (c) 0.318THz-waves propagated along a 50mm-long hybrid waveguide with a 200μm-thickness grating.
shows the simulated power-distribution in the Y-Z plane for a 0.278THz-wave propagated along the 200μm-thick and 50mm-long grating waveguide. The input power is excited from the left-hand side and its intensity is assumed to be one unit. Following a 50mm- long propagation, the intensity of the 0.278THz-wave remains 0.1-unit, which is consistent with the measured result shown in Fig. 2(a) (green line), and its high confinement at the output end of waveguide agrees well with the measurement shown in Fig. 5. Figure 6(b) shows the power distribution of 0.300THz-wave which is interrupted after about a 40mm-long propagation because of the low transmittance (about 0.03) at the waveguide’s output end, as shown in Fig. 2(a) and thus falls outside the measurable dynamic range. Beyond the Braggfrequency of the 200μm-thick grating waveguide (0.296THz), the measured transmittance rises to 0.1 at 0.318THz as indicated in Fig. 2(a). Figure 6(c) shows the simulated power-distribution of the 0.318THz-wave at the output end of 200μm-thick grating waveguide, indicating that this frequency is able to transmit through the 50mm-long grating waveguide and its confinement is better than that of the 0.278THz-wave. Therefore, the THz frequency approaching the Bragg frequency of 0.296THz from a high frequency range can also be highly confined inside the 200μm-thick grating waveguide and its transmission length can be as long as 50mm.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, under projects from the Ministry of Education and the National Science Council (NSC 100-2221-E-006 -174 -MY3) of Taiwan.

References and links

1.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061113 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

T. I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6216–6226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

C. R. Williams, M. Misra, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, S. C. Palacios, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Dual band terahertz waveguiding on a planar metal surface patterned with annular holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011101 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

L. Shen, X. Chen, and T. J. Yang, “Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on periodically corrugated metal surfaces,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3326–3333 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. Martin-Cano, O. Quevedo-Teruel, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Waveguided spoof surface plasmons with deep-subwavelength lateral confinement,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4635–4637 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy, “Design criteria for microstructured-optical-fiber-based surface-plasmon-resonance sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1423–1429 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. M. Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi-mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 56(3), 189–197 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Martl, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Excitation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on etched groove gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(3), 554–558 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

L. S. Mukina, M. M. Nazarov, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Propagation of THz plasmon pulse on corrugated and flat metal surface,” Surf. Sci. 600(20), 4771–4776 (2006). [CrossRef]

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M. Nazarov, J. L. Coutaz, A. Shkurinov, and F. Garet, “THz surface plasmon jump between two metal edges,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 33–39 (2007). [CrossRef]

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G. Gaborit, D. Armand, J. L. Coutaz, M. Nazarov, and A. Shkurinov, “Excitation and focusing of terahertz surface plasmons using a grating coupler with elliptically curved grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231108 (2009). [CrossRef]

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M. Gong, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz surface wave collapse on coated metal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17088–17101 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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27.

B. You, J. Y. Lu, T. A. Liu, J. L. Peng, and C. L. Pan, “Subwavelength plastic wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051105 (2010). [CrossRef]

28.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1–6), 22–26 (1998). [CrossRef]

30.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–20 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

E. S. Lee, D. H. Kang, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, D. S. Kim, and T. I. Jeon, “Bragg reflection of terahertz waves in plasmonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9212–9218 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: November 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 22, 2013
Published: March 4, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Borwen You, Ja-Yu Lu, Wei-Lun Chang, Chin-Ping Yu, Tze-An Liu, and Jin-Long Peng, "Subwavelength confined terahertz waves on planar waveguides using metallic gratings," Opt. Express 21, 6009-6019 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-6009


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References

  1. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett.7(2), 334–337 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061113 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. T. I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161904 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(3), 175–179 (2008). [CrossRef]
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