OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 4 — May. 22, 2013
« Show journal navigation

Generalized Jones matrices for anisotropic media

Noé Ortega-Quijano and José Luis Arce-Diego  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 6895-6900 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.006895


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (865 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The interaction of arbitrary three-dimensional light beams with optical elements is described by the generalized Jones calculus, which has been formally proposed recently [Azzam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2279 (2011)]. In this work we obtain the parametric expression of the 3×3 differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM) for arbitrary optical media assuming transverse light waves. The dGJM is intimately connected to the Gell-Mann matrices, and we show that it provides a versatile method for obtaining the macroscopic GJM of media with either sequential or simultaneous anisotropic effects. Explicit parametric expressions of the GJM for some relevant optical elements are provided.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In the widely-used Jones calculus, completely polarized light beams are characterized by the Jones vector. Such description assumes transverse plane waves traveling along a fixed propagation direction parallel to the z axis, which is a valid approach in a broad range of physical situations. However, during the last years there is a growing interest in applications that entail propagation direction changes and/or non-transverse electric fields. Some of these applications are light propagation in turbid media, high numerical aperture focusing, near-field optics and light interaction with nanoparticles [1

1. K. Lindfors, A. Priimagi, T. Setälä, A. Shevchenko, A. T. Friberg, and M. Kaivola, “Local polarization of tightly focused unpolarized light,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 228–231 (2007). [CrossRef]

3

3. S. Orlov, U. Peschel, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Analytical expansion of highly focused vector beams into vector spherical harmonics and its application to Mie scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 85(6), 063825 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Completely polarized light beams in such situations can be characterized by the generalized Jones vector (GJV), also called 3D Jones vector [4

4. J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]

,5

5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A generalized 3×3 Jones calculus has been recently proposed for describing the interaction of GJVs with anisotropic optical media and devices [5

5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, no generalized Jones matrices for optical devices or media have been given so far.

In this work we present a method for obtaining the generalized Jones matrices (GJMs) of arbitrary optical media and devices. Our development is based on the differential formulation of the generalized Jones calculus, and assumes transverse light waves. We present the explicit form of the differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM), which extends the well-known differential Jones matrix to the three-dimensional framework. The GJM of samples with either sequential or simultaneous optical effects can be readily obtained from the dGJM. In order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method, we provide explicit expressions of the GJM for the major types of optical devices, namely linear retarders and dichroic absorbers, and optically-active rotators.

2. Generalized Jones calculus and the differential generalized Jones matrix

According to the generalized Jones calculus [5

5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the equation that describes the elastic interaction of an input generalized Jones vector Ei with a sample is:
Eo=GEi,
(1)
where Eo is the output GJV and G is the generalized Jones matrix of the sample, a 3×3 complex matrix that determines the linear relationship between the input and output GJVs. Both GJVs are specified in the same right-handed Cartesian coordinate system xyz. From now on, we assume that both the input and output GJVs correspond to transverse totally polarized light waves, and therefore G models the linear relationship between input and output transverse waves.

From this theoretical approach, the differential calculus can be extended to the three-dimensional formulation. In order to do that, it is necessary to replace the Pauli matrices by the Gell-Mann matrices [4

4. J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]

,8

8. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light. A statistical optics approach (Wiley, 1998).

], which form the complete set of infinitesimal generators of the Lie group SU(3):
O0=[100010001]O1=[100010000]O2=[010100000]O3=[0i0i00000]O4=13[100010002]O5=[001000100]O6=[00i000i00]O7=[000001010]O8=[00000i0i0].
(8)
Taking these matrices into account, the differential generalized Jones matrix g can be expressed as the following linear combination:
g=12m=08ipmOm,
(9)
where the nine coefficients pm are:
{p0...8}={2γi,γqxy,γuxy,γvxy,2/3γqz,γuxz,γvxz,γuyz,γvxz}.
(10)
The differential GJM is thus:
g=12[2κi+κqxy+2κqz/3+i(2ηi+ηqxy+2ηqz/3)ηvxy+κuxy+i(ηuxyκvxy)ηvxz+κuxz+i(ηuxzκvxz)ηvxy+κuxy+i(ηuxy+κvxy)2κiκqxy+2κqz/3+i(2ηiηqxy+2ηqz/3)ηvyz+κuyz+i(ηuyzκvyz)ηvxz+κuxz+i(ηuxz+κvxz)ηvyz+κuyz+i(ηuyz+κvyz)2κi4κqz/3+i(2ηi4ηqz/3)].
(11)
The dGJM involves a total of 18 differential parameters that completely characterize the polarimetric properties of the sample. Isotropic retardation and absorption are denoted in the same way (ηi and κi). Parameters ηq,u,vxy and κq,u,vxy are the linear xy, linear ±45 and circular birefringence and dichroism in the xy plane respectively. They correspond to those involved in Eq. (7). The rest of parameters complement the three-dimensional anisotropy characterization: ηu,vxy and κu,vxy are the linear ±45 and circular birefringence and dichroism in the xz plane, while ηu,vyz and κu,vyz are analogously defined for the yz plane. Finally, ηqz and κqz quantify the difference in linear retardance and absorption between the z direction and the xy plane.

The dGJM presents some remarkable characteristics. Firstly, comparing Eq. (7) and Eq. (11), it can be observed that the upper-left 2×2 block coincides with j, apart from parameters ηqz and κqz, which contribute to the expression in the three-dimensional framework. Additionally, the symmetries of the dGJM are similar to those shown by the differential Jones matrix. In the extended matrix g, the positions occupied by the differential parameters for anisotropic effects in the xz plane are restricted to elements g(1,3) and g(3,1), while those for the yz plane are contained in g(2,3) and g(3,2).

3. Generalized Jones matrices of basic polarization devices

The presented approach is now applied to obtain explicit expressions of the GJMs for the most relevant classes of optical elements. A right-handed laboratory Cartesian coordinate system xyz is assumed (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Index ellipsoid of a uniaxial medium with the optic axis parallel to the laboratory z axis (left) and aligned with the direction z(θb,ϕb) of local coordinate system xyz (right).
). According to the convention used in [5

5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and adopted in this work, any other local coordinate system xyz is univocally defined by z(θ,ϕ) (i.e. by the polar and azimuthal angles of the z axis), being x(π/2,ϕπ/2) and y=z×x. The effect of the coordinate system transformation on the GJV is:
Exyz=C(θ,ϕ)Exyz,
(15)
where the subscript indicates the coordinate system in which the GJV is specified, and the coordinate system transformation matrix C(θ,ϕ) is:
C(θ,ϕ)=[sinϕcosθcosϕsinθcosϕcosϕcosθsinϕsinθsinϕ0sinθcosθ].
(16)
We first consider the case of a linear retarder (LR). In general, birefringent media possess three different principal refractive indices, which define the characteristic index ellipsoid of the sample [12

12. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

]. However, a vast number of optical devices and samples are made of uniaxial materials. Uniaxial media show two equal refractive indices (the ordinary indices) different to the third one (called the extraordinary index). In such situations, the index ellipsoid becomes an ellipsoid of revolution, whose orientation can be completely defined by the optic axis z(θb,ϕb) (which is aligned with the extraordinary principal axis) as shown in Fig. 1.

Considering a linear birefringent medium in which the optic axis is parallel to the z axis (Fig. 1, left), the dGJM in the laboratory system is the following diagonal matrix:
gLR|xyzz=i3ηqzO4=diag(iηqz/3,iηqz/3,i2ηqz/3),
(17)
as the only non-null differential parameter is ηqz, which simply quantifies the difference between the extraordinary and ordinary propagation constants, ηqz=Δη=ηeηo. Substituting Eq. (17) into Eq. (13), the GJM of this device is readily obtained:
GLR|xyzz=diag(eiδ/3,eiδ/3,ei2δ/3).
(18)
In this equation, δ=lΔη is the linear retardance of the sample. At this point, we consider a medium in which the optic axis is arbitrarily oriented along z (Fig. 1, right). Obviously, the GJM in the local coordinate system verifies GLR|xyzz=GLR|xyzz. As a consequence, the simplest way to find the GJM of an arbitrarily oriented LR is to perform a coordinate system change, multiply by GLR|xyzz, and finally apply the inverse coordinate change:
GLR=C(θb,ϕb)GLR|xyzzC1(θb,ϕb).
(19)
This expression enables to obtain the GJM of a uniaxial LR with any optic axis orientation, and constitutes the core of a general method for obtaining the GJM of arbitrary elements in the generalized Jones calculus. Note that Eq. (19) parallels the approach used in Jones calculus [8

8. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light. A statistical optics approach (Wiley, 1998).

]. As a particular example, the GJM of such device for z(π/2,ϕb) is:
GLR|θb=π/2=[ei2δ/3cos2ϕb+eiδ/3sin2ϕb(ei2δ/3eiδ/3)cosϕbsinϕb0(ei2δ/3eiδ/3)cosϕbsinϕbei2δ/3sin2ϕb+eiδ/3cos2ϕb000eiδ/3].
(20)
The same method can be developed for a uniaxial linear dichroic (LD) absorber. In the basic scenario, and according to the same considerations made for the linear birefringent medium:
gLD|xyzz=13κqzO4=diag(κqz/3,κqz/3,2κqz/3),
(21)
where κqz=Δκ=κeκo. The corresponding GJM for the LD is given by:
GLD|xyzz=diag(eα/3,eα/3,e2α/3).
(22)
where α=lΔκ.The GJM of a LD absorber with arbitrary orientation of the extraordinary axis can thus be straightforwardly obtained by introducing Eq. (22) into Eq. (19). The GJM of this optical element for z(π/2,ϕd) is hereby provided for illustrative purposes:
GLD|θd=π/2=[e2α/3cos2ϕd+eα/3sin2ϕd(e2α/3eα/3)cosϕdsinϕd0(e2α/3eα/3)cosϕdsinϕde2α/3sin2ϕd+eα/3cos2ϕd000eα/3].
(23)
Finally, optical rotators (OR) made of isotropic optically active materials are considered. The non-null differential parameters for this type of medium are ηvxy=ηvxz=ηvyz=ηv, and its dGJM can be expressed as:
gOR=12iηv(O3+O6+O8)=12[0ηvηvηv0ηvηvηv0].
(24)
Defining ψ=3lηv/2, the explicit expression of the GJM for the OR is:

GOR=13[2cosψ+1cosψ+3sinψ1cosψ+3sinψ+1cosψ3sinψ12cosψ+1cosψ+3sinψ1cosψ3sinψ+1cosψ3sinψ12cosψ+1].
(25)

4. Conclusion

In this work, a method for obtaining the GJM of non-depolarizing anisotropic samples has been presented. Our approach is based on the dGJM, which is obtained by the extension of the differential Jones matrix to the three-dimensional framework. The dGJM provides a versatile method for obtaining the GJM of arbitrary anisotropic optical elements in a simple and elegant way. Explicit parametric expressions of the GJM for some relevant devices have been given. Transverse totally polarized light waves have been assumed. Such approach is useful for applications that entail propagation direction changes (e.g. scattering in the far field), and constitutes a necessary first step toward the development of the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, which presents a foreseeable potential for a wide range of applications.

References and links

1.

K. Lindfors, A. Priimagi, T. Setälä, A. Shevchenko, A. T. Friberg, and M. Kaivola, “Local polarization of tightly focused unpolarized light,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 228–231 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

H. Kang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Polarization characterization in the focal volume of high numerical aperture objectives,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10813–10821 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Orlov, U. Peschel, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Analytical expansion of highly focused vector beams into vector spherical harmonics and its application to Mie scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 85(6), 063825 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. R. Jones, “A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. VII. Properties of the N-matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38(8), 671–685 (1948). [CrossRef]

7.

R. Barakat, “Exponential versions of the Jones and Mueller-Jones polarization matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(1), 158–163 (1996). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light. A statistical optics approach (Wiley, 1998).

9.

D. Han, Y. S. Kim, and M. E. Noz, “Jones-matrix formalism as a representation of the Lorentz group,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(9), 2290–2298 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

R. M. A. Azzam, “Propagation of partially polarized light through anisotropic media with or without depolarization: A differential 4x4 matrix calculus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(12), 1756–1767 (1978). [CrossRef]

11.

N. Ortega-Quijano and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Depolarizing differential Mueller matrices,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2429–2431 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

OCIS Codes
(260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
(260.2130) Physical optics : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 19, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 7, 2013
Published: March 12, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Noé Ortega-Quijano and José Luis Arce-Diego, "Generalized Jones matrices for anisotropic media," Opt. Express 21, 6895-6900 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-6-6895


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. Lindfors, A. Priimagi, T. Setälä, A. Shevchenko, A. T. Friberg, and M. Kaivola, “Local polarization of tightly focused unpolarized light,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 228–231 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Polarization characterization in the focal volume of high numerical aperture objectives,” Opt. Express18(10), 10813–10821 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Orlov, U. Peschel, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Analytical expansion of highly focused vector beams into vector spherical harmonics and its application to Mie scattering,” Phys. Rev. A85(6), 063825 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.40(1), 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(11), 2279–2283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. R. Jones, “A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. VII. Properties of the N-matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.38(8), 671–685 (1948). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Barakat, “Exponential versions of the Jones and Mueller-Jones polarization matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13(1), 158–163 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light. A statistical optics approach (Wiley, 1998).
  9. D. Han, Y. S. Kim, and M. E. Noz, “Jones-matrix formalism as a representation of the Lorentz group,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(9), 2290–2298 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. A. Azzam, “Propagation of partially polarized light through anisotropic media with or without depolarization: A differential 4x4 matrix calculus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.68(12), 1756–1767 (1978). [CrossRef]
  11. N. Ortega-Quijano and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Depolarizing differential Mueller matrices,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2429–2431 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited