## Enhancing diffractive multi-plane microscopy using colored illumination |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 11150-11161 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.011150

Acrobat PDF (2611 KB)

### Abstract

We present a method to increase the number of simultaneously imaged focal planes in diffractive multi-plane imaging. We exploit the chromatic properties of diffraction by using multicolor LED illumination and demonstrate time-synchronous imaging of up to 21 focal planes.We discuss the possibilities and limits given by the use of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to display the diffractive patterns. The method is suitable for wide-field transmission and reflection microscopy.

© 2013 osa

## 1. Introduction

1. P. Prabhat, S. Ram, E. Ward, and R. Ober, “Simultaneous imaging of different focal planes in fluorescence microscopy for the study of cellular dynamics in three dimensions,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. **3**, 237–242 (2004) [CrossRef] .

3. T. M. Watanabe, T. Sato, K. Gonda, and H. Higuchi, “Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics,” Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. **359**, 1–7 (2007) [CrossRef] .

4. M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. **5**, 527–529 (2008) [CrossRef] .

7. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Meth. **3**, 793–795 (2006) [CrossRef] .

8. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. **32**, 2007–2009 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

10. W. Xu, M. Jericho, H. Kreuzer, and I. Meinertzhagen, “Tracking particles in four dimensions with in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 164–166 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

13. J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. **45**, 3893–3901 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

14. L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, and T. Schmidt, “Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **90**, 053902 (2007) [CrossRef] .

16. M. D. Lew, S. F. Lee, M. Badieirostami, and W. E. Moerner, “Corkscrew point spread function for far-field three-dimensional nanoscale localization of pointlike objects,” Opt. Lett. **36**, 202–204 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

1. P. Prabhat, S. Ram, E. Ward, and R. Ober, “Simultaneous imaging of different focal planes in fluorescence microscopy for the study of cellular dynamics in three dimensions,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. **3**, 237–242 (2004) [CrossRef] .

3. T. M. Watanabe, T. Sato, K. Gonda, and H. Higuchi, “Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics,” Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. **359**, 1–7 (2007) [CrossRef] .

17. E. Toprak, H. Balci, B. H. Blehm, and P. R. Selvin, “Three-dimensional particle tracking via bifocal imaging,” Nano Lett. **7**, 2043–2045 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

8. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. **32**, 2007–2009 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

18. P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. **38**, 6692–6699 (1999) [CrossRef] .

19. Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. M. Watson, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 2098–2100 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

20. Y. Luo, I. K. Zervantonakis, S. B. Oh, R. D. Kamm, and G. Barbastathis, “Spectrally resolved multidepth fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. **16**, 096015 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

21. C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy,” Opt. Express **18**, 3023–3034 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

22. P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging,” Opt. Commun. **183**, 29–36 (2000) [CrossRef] .

24. S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. D. Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Meth. **10**, 60–63 (2013) [CrossRef] .

24. S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. D. Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Meth. **10**, 60–63 (2013) [CrossRef] .

18. P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. **38**, 6692–6699 (1999) [CrossRef] .

8. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. **32**, 2007–2009 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

24. S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. D. Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Meth. **10**, 60–63 (2013) [CrossRef] .

## 2. Experimental results

*Luminus SST-90-R-F11-HF100, SST-90-G-F11-JG200, SSR-90-B-R11-KF300*), which were spectrally narrowed by bandpass filters to (458 ± 0.8) nm, (532 ± 1.5) nm and (633 ± 1.5) nm, were combined using dichroic mirrors and sent through the condenser to illuminate the sample at an effective NA of around 0.5. The light powers coupled into the condenser lens were 8 mW, 7 mW and 20 mW for the red, green and blue wavelengths, respectively. The objective back aperture was imaged onto the panel of a LC-SLM (

*PLUTO*system from

*Holoeye Photonics AG*). The relay optics is not shown in the drawing. We have computed a diffractive pattern that acts like a “one-to-seven” beam splitter. Each of the seven output beams shows the same diffraction angle with respect to the optical axis but a different azimuthal angle and degree of divergence, which can be freely chosen and corresponds to specific values of defocus in the sample volume. While arranging the output beams in a squared geometry (as for instance in Refs [21

21. C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy,” Opt. Express **18**, 3023–3034 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

**10**, 60–63 (2013) [CrossRef] .

## 3. Pattern design and aberration correction

25. R. Di Leonardo, F. Ianni, and G. Ruocco, “Computer generation of optimal holograms for optical trap arrays,” Opt. Express **15**, 1913–1922 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

26. A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, “Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction,” Opt. Express **18**, 21090–21099 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

## 4. Limits for pixelated diffractive patterns

27. L. Golan, I. Reutsky, N. Farah, and S. Shoham, “Design and characteristics of holographic neural photo-stimulation systems,” J Neural Eng. **6**, 066004 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

29. P. S. Salter, Z. Iqbal, and M. J. Booth, “Analysis of the three-dimensional focal positioning capability of adaptive optic elements,” Int. J. Optomechatronics **7**, 1–14 (2013) [CrossRef] .

30. G. Di Francia, “Resolving Power and Information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. **45**, 497–501 (1955) [CrossRef] .

*λ*

_{0}(with NA denoting the numerical aperture of the objective and

*λ*

_{0}the vacuum wavelength), this sampling length is, according to the Nyquist theorem,

*λ*

_{0}/ (2NA). We may call the quantity describing the information content

*N*. In Fourier space, which is optically formed at the SLM plane, this quantity can be defined similarly. There it corresponds to the diameter of the light field divided by the sampling length as defined by the NA of the lens in front of the SLM. Ideally, the size of the diffractive pattern is chosen to fill to entire SLM panel in order to use as many pixels as possible and the telescope optics between objective and SLM is designed to image the objective back aperture exactly onto the diffractive pattern. We obtain the following relation: where

_{PSF}*N*denotes the diameter of the diffractive pattern in units of pixels and

*δ*the side length of a pixel. The angle

*β*is the opening angle of the light cone produced by the lens in front of the SLM (Fig. 4). This angle must be smaller than the maximal angle of diffraction (

*α*) that can be produced by the SLM pattern (

_{max}*β*≤

*α*), otherwise the cones of the zero and first diffraction order overlap as do the corresponding images on the camera. This is necessary because it is difficult to cancel the zero diffraction order, which originates from non-ideal properties of the SLM. Methods to reduce the zero order are known [31

_{max}31. D. Palima and V. R. Daria, “Holographic projection of arbitrary light patterns with a suppressed zero-order beam,” Appl. Opt. **46**, 4197–4201 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

32. E. Ronzitti, M. Guillon, V. de Sars, and V. Emiliani, “LCoS nematic SLM characterization and modeling for diffraction efficiency optimization, zero and ghost orders suppression,” Opt. Express **20**, 17843–17855 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

*α*corresponds to the finest possible grating on the SLM, which has a period of two pixels. We thus have:

_{max}*α*≈

_{max}*λ*

_{0}/(2

*δ*). When inserted in Eq. (2), one obtains as an upper limit for the number of resolved spots across the FOV. Apparently, the only crucial parameter is the number of pixels of the diffractive pattern. It is important to mention that this restriction only exists along the axis where the diffraction occurs. The orthogonal direction is not affected. Equation 3 was derived under the assumption of coherent illumination. For partially coherent illumination

*N*is larger as a consequence of the effectively narrower PSF. When using the

_{PSF}*PLUTO*device of

*Holoeye Photonics AG*, which features 1080 rows, the maximal FOV along the direction of diffraction can thus contain up to 540 resolved spots for coherent illumination.

*N*, i.e. the resolution of the device, but also the objective NA will represent crucial parameters. Based on the Nyquist criterion we find the following limit for refocusing with a SLM (see Appendix for a derivation): Here,

*n*is the refractive index of the immersion medium and sample, which are assumed to be the same, and

*P*the period of a grating (in units of pixels) that is added to the diffractive lens. The gratings, which are necessary to ensure that all sub-images of a multi-plane image are laterally separated on the camera sensor, unfortunately reduce the available focusing range. This range equals zero for a grating period of 2, since this is the finest possible grating and any kind of additional modulation will violate the sampling criterion. Note that for the case of a refractive index mismatch between the sample and immersion media, the focus will show an additional shift because of the refraction at the interface. In this case the total focus shift can be approximated by Δ

*z*·

*n*

_{2}/

*n*

_{1}, where

*n*

_{2}denotes the refractive index of the sample, and

*n*

_{1}that of the immersion medium. One has to bear in mind that a refractive index mismatch does also cause spherical aberrations, the correction of which was included experimentally, but not in the here made considerations.

*z*| that can be set. The plots were calculated using the following parameters:

*N*=1080,

*n*=1.33 (focusing into water with a water immersion lens), and

*λ*

_{0}=532 nm.

## 5. Discussion

*z*= 0, which is different from the plane distribution depicted in Fig. 2. Then, chromatic shifts would be less pronounced and a 3D color stack could be interpolated from the available data more easily. It is also worthwhile noting that for the sake of measuring the color-dependent absorption of a sample, the narrow-band three-color illumination used in our work is only of limited use as only three points of the function are sampled.

33. G. Love, “Liquid-crystal phase modulator for unpolarized light,” Appl. Opt. **32**, 2222–2223 (1993) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

## 6. Appendix

## Derivation of Eq. (5)

**32**, 2007–2009 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

*ρ*=

*r*/(

*f*NA), where

*r*is the radial coordinate and

*f*the focal length of the objective lens, the defocus phase function for a focal shift of Δ

*z*can be expressed as [26

26. A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, “Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction,” Opt. Express **18**, 21090–21099 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

*n*is the refractive index of the immersion medium and the sample. Note that for the case of a refractive index mismatch between these media, the focus will show an additional shift because of the refraction at the interface. Efficient defocusing is achieved as long as this spherical function is correctly sampled by the SLM. This is fulfilled if the derivative of the above expression is smaller than

*M*·

*π*/

*δ*, where

*M*is the magnification at which the objective pupil is imaged onto the SLM. In units of the normalized radius, the pixel size

*δ*can be expressed as

*M*· 2/

*N*. The lens term of Eq. (6) has its steepest gradient at

*ρ*= 1, i.e. at the fringe of the lens. The Nyquist criterion can therefore be expressed as follows: Finally, an upper limit for defocusing with a SLM can be defined as: Obviously, this range depends not only on the SLM resolution

*N*, but also on the wavelength, the objective NA and the refractive index. It should be noted, however, that the diffraction efficiency of the lens will drop even before this sampling limit is reached. At the sampling threshold defined above, the diffractive lens will show an efficiency drop from practically 100% in its center to 41% at its boundary (i.e. the diffraction efficiency of a binary grating). For the application of multi-focal plane imaging, many diffractive lenses have to be combined in a single diffraction pattern. Each of these lens functions must be superposed by an individual blazed grating such that the final images at the camera are laterally separated. Adding such a grating will reduce the accessible defocus range. In this case the Nyquist criterion takes the following form: In the above equation we consider only the normalized Cartesian coordinate

*ξ*=

*x*/(

*f*NA) and assume that the x-axis is parallel to the grating vector

*k*. We also assume that

*k*> 0.

*k*can be expressed in terms of the grating period

*P*(in pixels):

*k*= 2

*π*/(

*Pδ*) = (

*Nπ*)/

*P*. We then obtain the following defocusing limit: As expected, the refocus range is zero for a grating period of 2, since this is the finest possible grating and any kind of additional modulation will violate the sampling criterion. Also, in the limit of

*P*→

**∞**, the expression identical to that of Eq. (8).

## Acknowledgments

*catchIT*.

## References and links

1. | P. Prabhat, S. Ram, E. Ward, and R. Ober, “Simultaneous imaging of different focal planes in fluorescence microscopy for the study of cellular dynamics in three dimensions,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. |

2. | I. Sbalzarini and P. Koumoutsakos, “Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology,” J. Struct. Biol. |

3. | T. M. Watanabe, T. Sato, K. Gonda, and H. Higuchi, “Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics,” Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. |

4. | M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. |

5. | E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science |

6. | S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. |

7. | M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Meth. |

8. | E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. |

9. | J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH): a review of research,” Adv. Opt. Tech. |

10. | W. Xu, M. Jericho, H. Kreuzer, and I. Meinertzhagen, “Tracking particles in four dimensions with in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. |

11. | P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holographic microscopy: a noninvasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with subwavelength axial accuracy,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, B. Javidi, G. Coppola, and V. Striano, “Extended focused image in microscopy by digital holography,” Opt. Express |

13. | J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. |

14. | L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, and T. Schmidt, “Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

15. | S. R. P. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA |

16. | M. D. Lew, S. F. Lee, M. Badieirostami, and W. E. Moerner, “Corkscrew point spread function for far-field three-dimensional nanoscale localization of pointlike objects,” Opt. Lett. |

17. | E. Toprak, H. Balci, B. H. Blehm, and P. R. Selvin, “Three-dimensional particle tracking via bifocal imaging,” Nano Lett. |

18. | P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. |

19. | Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. M. Watson, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett. |

20. | Y. Luo, I. K. Zervantonakis, S. B. Oh, R. D. Kamm, and G. Barbastathis, “Spectrally resolved multidepth fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. |

21. | C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy,” Opt. Express |

22. | P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging,” Opt. Commun. |

23. | Y. Feng, P. A. Dalgarno, D. Lee, Y. Yang, R. R. Thomson, and A. H. Greenaway, “Chromatically-corrected, high-efficiency, multi-colour, multi-plane 3D imaging,” Opt. Express |

24. | S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. D. Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Meth. |

25. | R. Di Leonardo, F. Ianni, and G. Ruocco, “Computer generation of optimal holograms for optical trap arrays,” Opt. Express |

26. | A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, “Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction,” Opt. Express |

27. | L. Golan, I. Reutsky, N. Farah, and S. Shoham, “Design and characteristics of holographic neural photo-stimulation systems,” J Neural Eng. |

28. | A. Jesacher and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Multi-focal light microscopy using liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” in “International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) 2012,” (2012), pp. 1–2 [CrossRef] . |

29. | P. S. Salter, Z. Iqbal, and M. J. Booth, “Analysis of the three-dimensional focal positioning capability of adaptive optic elements,” Int. J. Optomechatronics |

30. | G. Di Francia, “Resolving Power and Information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

31. | D. Palima and V. R. Daria, “Holographic projection of arbitrary light patterns with a suppressed zero-order beam,” Appl. Opt. |

32. | E. Ronzitti, M. Guillon, V. de Sars, and V. Emiliani, “LCoS nematic SLM characterization and modeling for diffraction efficiency optimization, zero and ghost orders suppression,” Opt. Express |

33. | G. Love, “Liquid-crystal phase modulator for unpolarized light,” Appl. Opt. |

**OCIS Codes**

(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics

(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy

(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition

(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

**ToC Category:**

Microscopy

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 20, 2013

Revised Manuscript: April 11, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: April 11, 2013

Published: April 30, 2013

**Virtual Issues**

Vol. 8, Iss. 6 *Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics*

**Citation**

Alexander Jesacher, Clemens Roider, and Monika Ritsch-Marte, "Enhancing diffractive multi-plane microscopy using colored illumination," Opt. Express **21**, 11150-11161 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-11150

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### References

- P. Prabhat, S. Ram, E. Ward, and R. Ober, “Simultaneous imaging of different focal planes in fluorescence microscopy for the study of cellular dynamics in three dimensions,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci.3, 237–242 (2004). [CrossRef]
- I. Sbalzarini and P. Koumoutsakos, “Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology,” J. Struct. Biol.151, 182–195 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. M. Watanabe, T. Sato, K. Gonda, and H. Higuchi, “Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics,” Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co.359, 1–7 (2007). [CrossRef]
- M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth.5, 527–529 (2008). [CrossRef]
- E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J.91, 4258–4272 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Meth.3, 793–795 (2006). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32, 2007–2009 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH): a review of research,” Adv. Opt. Tech.1, 151–169 (2012).
- W. Xu, M. Jericho, H. Kreuzer, and I. Meinertzhagen, “Tracking particles in four dimensions with in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28, 164–166 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holographic microscopy: a noninvasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with subwavelength axial accuracy,” Opt. Lett.30, 468–470 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, B. Javidi, G. Coppola, and V. Striano, “Extended focused image in microscopy by digital holography,” Opt. Express13, 6738–6749 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt.45, 3893–3901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, and T. Schmidt, “Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 053902 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. R. P. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA106, 2995–2999 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. D. Lew, S. F. Lee, M. Badieirostami, and W. E. Moerner, “Corkscrew point spread function for far-field three-dimensional nanoscale localization of pointlike objects,” Opt. Lett.36, 202–204 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- E. Toprak, H. Balci, B. H. Blehm, and P. R. Selvin, “Three-dimensional particle tracking via bifocal imaging,” Nano Lett.7, 2043–2045 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Blanchard and A. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt.38, 6692–6699 (1999). [CrossRef]
- Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. M. Watson, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett.33, 2098–2100 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Luo, I. K. Zervantonakis, S. B. Oh, R. D. Kamm, and G. Barbastathis, “Spectrally resolved multidepth fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096015 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy,” Opt. Express18, 3023–3034 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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