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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 9, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2014
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How to avoid a negative shift in reflection-type surface plasmon resonance biosensors with metallic nanostructures

Nak-Hyeon Kim, Tae Woo Kim, and Kyung Min Byun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4723-4730 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004723


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that introduction of a dielectric film can prevent the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curve from being shifted to a smaller angle, called negative shift, which occurs unpredictably when metallic nanostructures deposited on a metal film are exposed to an adsorption of binding analytes. From parylene coating experiments, we find that the proposed reflection-type SPR system with a low refractive index MgF2 film and gold nanorods can provide an enhanced sensitivity by more than 6 times as well as a reliable positive shift. It is due to the fact that use of a dielectric film can contribute to the compensation of an anomalous dispersion relation and the prevention of a destructive interaction of propagating surface plasmons with multiple localized plasmon modes. Our approach is intended to show the feasibility and extend the applicability of the proposed SPR system to diverse biomolecular reactions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Surface plasmons are transverse magnetic (TM) polarized waves trapped along a metal-dielectric interface. The resonant interaction between surface charge and incident light, called surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is responsible for the collective oscillations of free electrons. Since the SPR signal is sensitive to any variation in the refractive index or the thickness of a sensing medium around a metallic substrate, one can measure the adsorption of target analytes by tracking a change in resonance angle. However, despite several unique advantages of a SPR biosensor, such as rapid, quantitative, and label-free detection, it often suffers from insufficient sensitivity for biomolecules at very low molecular weights [1

1. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In order to surmount this limitation, there have been a lot of studies for amplifying the SPR signal [2

2. A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity-enhancement methods for surface plasmon sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(4), 571–606 (2011). [CrossRef]

,3

3. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(2), 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For example, some researchers proposed the strategy incorporating metallic nanoparticle-labeled target analytes [4

4. L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000). [CrossRef]

,5

5. L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since the use of metallic nanoparticles can provide a greatly enhanced field-matter interaction as well as an additional refractive index change, the sensor sensitivity was improved by more than an order, compared to a conventional SPR system. On the other hand, tagging biomolecules with colloidal metallic nanoparticles converts a label-free SPR detection into a labeled one and is thus inevitably afflicted with troublesome labeling procedures.

Recently, alternative SPR scheme with metallic nanogratings deposited on a metal film was proposed to improve the sensitivity while maintaining its intrinsic label-free detection [6

6. K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3737–3742 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1902–1904 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In principle, this approach could serve as an effective way to increase a surface reaction area and to generate a highly confined localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes, thereby increasing the field-matter interaction [8

8. N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, and K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), 4982–4988 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, critical issue on a negative shift, implying that the resonance angle changes to a smaller angle during the binding events, remains unclear [6

6. K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3737–3742 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

For those reasons, in this study, we intend to avoid the negative shift while preserving an enhanced sensitivity in SPR detection by incorporating a dielectric film and gold nanostructures. This study will serve as the first step to demonstrate the possibility of guaranteeing a reliable and positive SPR signal amplification as well as the feasibility of improving field-matter interaction for recognizing biomolecular reactions of low molecular weights.

2. Experimental

2-A. Sample Fabrication

Taking account of the advantages of a large-area nanosized pattern, such as robustness to fabrication error and reliability in experiments, we utilized a volatile solvent in distributing gold nanorods on a planar substrate. As shown in Fig. 1, a
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed SPR system incorporating a dielectric film and gold nanorods. A 45-nm thick gold film is evaporated on a NSF10 glass substrate via adhesion of a 5-nm thick titanium layer. MgF2 film of a low refractive index is then applied as a dielectric layer. Finally, gold nanorods are randomly distributed on top of the fabricated substrate. TM-polarized light with λ = 633 nm is incident with an angle of θ.
45-nm thick gold film was deposited onto an NSF10 glass after an evaporation of a 5-nm thick titanium adhesion layer. A 40-nm thick MgF2 layer with a low refractive index of n = 1.384 at λ = 633 nm [10

10. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

] was formed on the gold film via an e-beam evaporation method. Finally, a diluted solution containing gold nanorods was applied to the substrate and then loaded on a hot plate for 10 min to remove the volatile solution. After the processes, the substrate produced a uniform distribution of gold nanorods over a large area. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Top and cross-sectional view SEM images of the deposited gold nanorods on MgF2/gold film. The width, length, and thickness of individual gold nanorods are 10, 30, and 10 nm, respectively.
shows the top and cross-sectional view images of the fabricated samples with gold nanorods on a dielectric MgF2 film using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gold nanorods have a rectangular shape of a width of w = 10 nm and a length of l = 30 nm and a thickness of h = 10 nm. The total size of gold nanorods pattern was approximately 10 × 10 mm2.

2-B. Optical Measurement Setup

The fabricated samples were measured by a custom-made SPR setup to find a resonance angle. Incident light from a He–Ne laser of λ = 633 nm was passed through a polarizer to produce a TM mode signal. An optical chopper and a lock-in amplifier were employed to reduce an overall noise level. Reflected light from the sample was calibrated by a photodiode as an optical detector. Our SPR setup was based on dual concentric motorized rotation stages for angle scanning measurement with a nominal angular resolution of 0.002°. During the experiments, SPR curves were measured with a resolution of 0.01°.

2-C. Parylene Film Deposition

To test the sensor sensitivity, a parylene film was applied on the substrates and the sensor sensitivity was estimated by comparing the resonance angles before and after the film deposition. Although the sensitivity obtained from layered biointeractions such as DNA hybridization and protein-protein reaction could be a more practical performance measure, the degree of biomolecular interactions cannot be identical for gold and MgF2 surfaces as the immobilization efficiency of the ligands varies with the substrate material. On the other hand, a parylene film deposition can reduce such experimental variances. Indeed, a parylene film has been frequently used as a linker layer to promote the covalent immobilization of proteins in SPR biosensing applications [11

11. B. J. Jeon, M. H. Kim, and J. C. Pyun, “Application of a functionalized parylene film as a linker layer of SPR biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 154(2), 89–95 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the parylene film thickness was determined to produce an effective field-matter interaction within the penetration depth of plasmon fields [12

12. T. Read, R. V. Olkhov, and A. M. Shaw, “Measurement of the localised plasmon penetration depth for gold nanoparticles using a non-invasive bio-stacking method,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(16), 6122–6127 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The deposition procedure of a parylene film was as follows: The fabricated SPR samples were carefully rinsed with distilled water. After an evaporation of dimer at 160 °C and a pyrolysis process at 650 °C, the parylene layer was coated on the substrate at room temperature. The whole process was reproducibly carried out by a microprocessor-controlled parylene coater. The thickness of the parylene film was controlled by the initial amount of parylene dimer at a fixed deposition pressure. Ratio of the thickness to the monomer was measured to be 0.3 nm/mg for parylene-C averaged from four measurements.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 3
Fig. 3 SPR curves obtained from parylene coating experiments (a) for conventional bare gold substrate and (b) for SPR substrate with gold nanorods. The black and red lines represent the results before and after depositing a parylene film, respectively.
shows the reflectance curves of conventional and gold nanorods-based SPR samples when a parylene layer forms a uniform coverage over the sensor substrates. The parylene film thickness measured by atomic force microscopy is obtained to be 4.8 ± 1.2 nm. The solid black and red lines indicate the curves before and after the deposition of parylene film in an air environment. For bare gold film, the resonance angle shifts from 39.17° to 39.40°; thus, the net change is 0.23°. However, the SPR substrate with gold nanorods exhibits a large negative shift of –1.73° in resonance angle, implying a notable improvement in sensitivity by –7.5 times.

In addition to a negative SPR shift, as destructive coupling of surface plasmon waves with multiple LSP excitations may lead to an adverse effect of degenerated SPR characteristics [9

9. S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, and S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal-dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2846–2854 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the reflectance curves in Fig. 3(b) present a broader and shallower resonance band, compared to those in Fig. 3(a). While magnitude of the negative shift is greater than the SPR angle change of a conventional SPR system, degradation of SPR signal quality can increase an uncertainty in measurement and thus aggravate an accurate detection of binding events.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 SPR curves obtained from parylene coating experiments for the proposed SPR substrate with 40-nm thick MgF2 film and gold nanorods.
shows the measured reflectance curves of the SPR substrate with MgF2 film and gold nanorods before and after coating a parylene film. There are a few important points worth mentioning: 1) Obviously, resonance angle shift becomes positive according to a refractive index change on a sensor surface. Also, the fabricated SPR substrate exhibits a large shift of 1.42°, which corresponds to 6.2 times improvement in sensor sensitivity. This enhancement is mainly due to an efficient excitation of LSP modes in the vicinity of gold nanorods and a strong overlap of target matters with the excited LSP modes. 2) A narrower and deeper reflectance curve is achieved, which is due to the fact that a dielectric spacer can make the absorptive damping of surface plasmon waves by gold nanorods less prominent. This effect resembles a dramatic improvement in the SPR signal profile induced by plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) system with a silica coating evaporated onto a gold film [18

18. F. Bahrami, M. Maisonneuve, M. Meunier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “An improved refractive index sensor based on genetic optimization of plasmon waveguide resonance,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20863–20872 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Sharp resonance profile and large probing depth associated with dielectric waveguide modes of PWR biosensor, which are advantageous especially for detecting large biomaterials such as cells or bacteria, match well an overall trend of the experimental results in Fig. 4.

More samples were additionally tested to verify the consistency of our experimental data. In Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Statistical data of the SPR angle shift of four different samples for parylene coating experiments. The average resonance shifts and the errors are determined to be 0.22° ± 0.006° for conventional SPR substrate, 0.38° ± 0.023° for MgF2-based one with an SEF = 1.7, –1.62° ± 0.058° for gold nanorod-based one with a negative SEF = –7.4. The SPR substrate with MgF2 film and gold nanorods exhibits a positive shift of 1.45° ± 0.062°, yielding a SEF = 6.6.
, the mean values and standard errors in SPR angle shift were determined as 0.22° ± 0.006° for conventional SPR substrates, –1.62° ± 0.058° for gold nanorod-based ones, respectively. Thus, the sensitivity enhancement factor (SEF), defined as the ratio of ΔθSPR for conventional system to ΔθSPR for SPR system with MgF2 film or gold nanorods, was measured to be –7.4. On the other hand, SPR substrates with gold nanorods and MgF2 film exhibited a positive shift of 1.45° ± 0.062°, implying a SEF value of 6.6. Spatial variances in nanorod distribution are responsible for relatively high experimental errors in the sensitivity results.

It should be also emphasized that the added MgF2 layer can contribute to not only prevention of negative shift but enhancement of sensitivity. While the SPR curves are not shown here, resonance angle shift of SPR substrates with a 40-nm thick MgF2 film was found to be 0.38° ± 0.023°, which indicates an SEF = 1.7. It was previously addressed that by adding a very thin dielectric layer of a high refractive index on top of a metallic film, the sensor sensitivity can be considerably improved due to an enhanced plasmon fields at the analyte interface [19

19. A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Figure-of-merit enhancement of surface plasmon resonance sensors in the spectral interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1175–1177 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity enhancement of guided-wave surface-plasmon resonance sensors,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2539–2541 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The obtained SEF in this study is not substantial as expected because MgF2 layer has a relatively low refractive index [21

21. H.-G. Flesch, O. Werzer, M. Weis, J. Jakabovič, J. Kováč, D. Haško, G. Jakopič, H. J. Wondergem, and R. Resel, “A combined X-ray, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study on thin parylene-C films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1727–1730 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and its thickness is not the optimum for high sensitivity. However, in subsequent studies, further optimization of the thin dielectric layer and its combination with various gold nanostructures could lead to a significant improvement of the figure-of-merit in overall sensor performance as well as the sensitivity.

Finally, in order to verify the effect of MgF2 layer, we intend to visualize the enhanced plasmon fields near the SPR surface using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The minimum grid size for the FDTD was set to be 0.5 nm. For comparison study, we have chosen conventional and gold nanograting-mediated SPR substrates with and without a 40-nm-thick MgF2 spacer. Note that, we use a periodic gold nanograting model with a period of 100 nm, a width of 10 nm and a depth of 10 nm to simplify the randomly distributed gold nanorods. While gold nanograting model is not exactly consistent with gold nanorod, this can give us a hint that dielectric film can be beneficial for effective excitation of LSP modes. The FDTD calculation in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FDTD results of SPR substrates with (a) a bare gold film, (b) gold nanograting on gold film, and (c) gold nanograting on MgF2/gold film. Gold nanograting has a dimension of a width = 10 nm and a depth = 10 nm. Two-dimensional FDTD images are normalized by the field amplitude of 15.
exhibits well-known features of LSP modes excited by gold nanogratings. Contrary to conventional SPR substrate, the field amplitude reaches a maximum at individual corners of gold nanograting and falls exponentially along the z-axis [22

22. L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. More interestingly, two LSP modes in the vicinity of lower corners of gold nanograting in Fig. 6(b) are not efficiently excited, which is probably attributed to a destructive interaction of the LSP modes with a thin gold film. On the other hand, we can confirm in Fig. 6(c) that MgF2 layer plays a key role in preventing LSP modes from being degenerated, therefore improving a field-matter interaction at substrate-analyte interfaces.

Figure 7
Fig. 7 Vertical EX field amplitude profiles at the point where maximum field is found for the four different substrates.
shows the vertical amplitude profiles at the point where maximum field of EX is found. On the assumption that the electric field of an incident beam is of unit amplitude, maximum EX field amplitudes are obtained as 2.7 for conventional thin-film-based SPR substrate and 3.5 for the one with MgF2 film. This contrast is associated with a slight increase in sensitivity of MgF2-mediated SPR samples. On the other hand, the peak EX field amplitude is calculated as 27.4 for the SPR substrate with gold nanogratings and 29.5 (the main peak) and 16.8 (the second peak) for the one with gold nanogratings and MgF2 film. Such efficient LSP excitations of higher amplitudes support an assertion that a dielectric layer contributes to reducing a direct coupling between surface plasmons and LSP modes, resulting in blocking the negative shift and improving the sensor sensitivity simultaneously.

4. Conclusion

In this study, we proposed the SPR substrates with MgF2 dielectric film between a gold film and gold nanorods to avoid an unpredictable behavior of negative shift in a sensitive plasmonic biosensor. The experimental results presented that combination of MgF2 dielectric film and gold nanorods can provide a reliable SPR shift to a higher angular momentum as well as better SPR signal and improved sensitivity by more than 6 times. This is attributed to the compensation of an anomalous dispersion relation and the prevention of destructive interplay of surface plasmons with multiple LSP modes. Such a plasmonic interpretation was in good agreement with the numerical analyses based on FDTD computation. Considering rapid advances in surface immobilization and modification techniques, we envision that true realization of the proposed substrate and its applications to a sensitive detection for biomolecular reactions of low molecular weights will be readily feasible.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (2011-0029485).

References and links

1.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity-enhancement methods for surface plasmon sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(4), 571–606 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(2), 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000). [CrossRef]

5.

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3737–3742 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1902–1904 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, and K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), 4982–4988 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, and S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal-dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2846–2854 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

11.

B. J. Jeon, M. H. Kim, and J. C. Pyun, “Application of a functionalized parylene film as a linker layer of SPR biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 154(2), 89–95 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Read, R. V. Olkhov, and A. M. Shaw, “Measurement of the localised plasmon penetration depth for gold nanoparticles using a non-invasive bio-stacking method,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(16), 6122–6127 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, R. N. Hamm, and R. H. Ritchie, “Effect of damping on surface plasmon dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 31(18), 1127–1129 (1973). [CrossRef]

14.

R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, and R. J. Bell, “Dispersion curves for surface electromagnetic waves with damping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(4), 154–157 (1974). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Kim, “Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2307–2314 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. S. Jung, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, and D. H. Waldeck, “Blue-shift of surface plasmon resonance in a metal nanoslit array structure,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16081–16091 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

R. Micheletto, K. Hamamoto, T. Fujii, and Y. Kawakami, “Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 174104 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

F. Bahrami, M. Maisonneuve, M. Meunier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “An improved refractive index sensor based on genetic optimization of plasmon waveguide resonance,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20863–20872 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Figure-of-merit enhancement of surface plasmon resonance sensors in the spectral interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1175–1177 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity enhancement of guided-wave surface-plasmon resonance sensors,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2539–2541 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

H.-G. Flesch, O. Werzer, M. Weis, J. Jakabovič, J. Kováč, D. Haško, G. Jakopič, H. J. Wondergem, and R. Resel, “A combined X-ray, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study on thin parylene-C films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1727–1730 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: October 14, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 25, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 4, 2014
Published: February 21, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Nak-Hyeon Kim, Tae Woo Kim, and Kyung Min Byun, "How to avoid a negative shift in reflection-type surface plasmon resonance biosensors with metallic nanostructures," Opt. Express 22, 4723-4730 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-4-4723


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References

  1. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Shalabney, I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity-enhancement methods for surface plasmon sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(4), 571–606 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(2), 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, D. Kim, “Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3737–3742 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1902–1904 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), 4982–4988 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal-dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2846–2854 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  11. B. J. Jeon, M. H. Kim, J. C. Pyun, “Application of a functionalized parylene film as a linker layer of SPR biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 154(2), 89–95 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Read, R. V. Olkhov, A. M. Shaw, “Measurement of the localised plasmon penetration depth for gold nanoparticles using a non-invasive bio-stacking method,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(16), 6122–6127 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, R. N. Hamm, R. H. Ritchie, “Effect of damping on surface plasmon dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 31(18), 1127–1129 (1973). [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, R. J. Bell, “Dispersion curves for surface electromagnetic waves with damping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(4), 154–157 (1974). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Kim, “Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2307–2314 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. S. Jung, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, D. H. Waldeck, “Blue-shift of surface plasmon resonance in a metal nanoslit array structure,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16081–16091 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Micheletto, K. Hamamoto, T. Fujii, Y. Kawakami, “Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 174104 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Bahrami, M. Maisonneuve, M. Meunier, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, “An improved refractive index sensor based on genetic optimization of plasmon waveguide resonance,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20863–20872 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Shalabney, I. Abdulhalim, “Figure-of-merit enhancement of surface plasmon resonance sensors in the spectral interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1175–1177 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Lahav, M. Auslender, I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity enhancement of guided-wave surface-plasmon resonance sensors,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2539–2541 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H.-G. Flesch, O. Werzer, M. Weis, J. Jakabovič, J. Kováč, D. Haško, G. Jakopič, H. J. Wondergem, R. Resel, “A combined X-ray, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study on thin parylene-C films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1727–1730 (2009). [CrossRef]
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