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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 9, Iss. 5 — Apr. 29, 2014
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Observation of vector- and scalar-pulse in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser

Ling Yun, Xueming Liu, and Dongdong Han  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 5, pp. 5442-5447 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.005442


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Abstract

We report the experimental observations of vector pulse trapping and scalar dissipative soliton in a compact nanotube-mode-locked all-fiber laser for the first time to our best knowledge. The vector pulse exhibits a smooth Gaussian spectral profile without any sidebands. Although two orthogonally polarized components of the vector pulse have different central wavelengths, they copropagate as a unit in the laser cavity with the same speed. The scalar dissipative soliton shows a rectangular spectrum with pulse duration of ~13 ps, and can be compressed to ~320 fs external to the cavity. This flexible laser provides stable, ultrashort vector- and scalar-pulsed sources, which is convenient and attractive for practical applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Temporal soliton in optical fiber is very attractive for fundamental research and practical application in fields of nonlinear optics, ultrafast laser, and optical communications [1

1. B. Oktem, C. Ulgudur, and F. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010). [CrossRef]

3

3. D. Mao, X. M. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 3, 3223 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as material processing. As single-mode fibers (SMFs) have weakly birefringence due to stresses and bends, the vector feature of the solitons should be considered as they propagate along the fiber [4

4. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5(2), 392–402 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. It is found that depending on the strength of linear birefringence, different types of vector solitons, such as group velocity-locked vector solitons (GVLVSs) [5

5. M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14(18), 1011–1013 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], polarization-rotating vector solitons [6

6. V. V. Afanasjev, “Soliton polarization rotation in fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20(3), 270–272 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and phase-locked vector solitons (PLVSs) [7

7. N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 434–439 (1995). [CrossRef]

], have been discovered in SMFs. The GVLVSs are also known as soliton trapping, which has been theoretically predicted by Menyuk et al [8

8. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 12(8), 614–616 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. and then experimentally verified by Korolev et al [9

9. A. E. Korolev, V. N. Nazarov, D. A. Nolan, and C. M. Truesdale, “Experimental observation of orthogonally polarized time-delayed optical soliton trapping in birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 132–134 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is shown that such a vector soliton can be formed because the two orthogonally polarized components shift their central frequencies in opposite directions through the self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation [10

10. D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Optical soliton formation and dynamics in mode-locked fiber lasers have been investigated extensively [11

11. V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation dynamics of vector soliton molecules in mode locked fibre laser,” Sci Rep 3, 3154 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. L. Yun, X. M. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20992–20997 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, different from the soliton formed in fibers, solitons formed in a laser are dissipative nature [15

15. X. Liu, “Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023811 (2010). [CrossRef]

17

17. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons Around Us: Integrable, Hamiltonian and Dissipative System (Springer, 2003).

]. The formation is mutual interactions among cavity dispersion, fiber nonlinear effect, laser gain, and loss [18

18. K. Porsezian and V. C. Kuriakose, Optical Solitons: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges (Springer, 2003).

23

23. X. M. Liu, “Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063834 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Various techniques, such as nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) [24

24. X. Liu, “Mechanism of high-energy pulse generation without wave breaking in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053808 (2010). [CrossRef]

26

26. S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) [27

27. N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1321–1323 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) [28

28. M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. D. Mao, X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, and H. Lu, “Compact all-fiber laser delivering conventional and dissipative solitons,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3190–3193 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) [30

30. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]

33

33. Y. S. Fedotov, S. M. Kobtsev, R. N. Arif, A. G. Rozhin, C. Mou, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Spectrum-, pulsewidth-, and wavelength-switchable all-fiber mode-locked Yb laser with fiber based birefringent filter,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17797–17805 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], graphene [34

34. J. Xu, S. D. Wu, H. H. Li, J. Liu, R. Y. Sun, F. Z. Tan, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and graphene-nanotube mixtures [35

35. Y. D. Cui and X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been utilized to realize passive mode locking. Due to the polarization-insensitive nature, SESAMs have the potential to generate vector solitons. Zhao et al. have observed the soliton trapping in an anomalous-dispersion fiber laser, where the optical spectrum exhibits a double set of sidebands corresponding to two orthogonally polarized components [36

36. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9528–9533 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Currently, the pulse trapping in a SESAM mode-locked fiber laser with near-zero dispersion has been in-depth investigated by Mao et al [10

10. D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, SESAMs require complex and costly clean-based fabrication systems, and suffer from a low optical damage threshold [37

37. A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Novel mode lockers based on SWNTs and graphene have been widely studied and used in fiber lasers due to inherent advantages of ultrafast saturation recovery time, super-broadband saturable absorption, mechanical and environmental robustness, and easy fabrication process over the SESAMs [30

30. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]

35

35. Y. D. Cui and X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 38

38. X. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013). [PubMed]

]. To the best of our knowledge, the study of pulse trapping in SWNTs-based fiber lasers is rare.

In this paper, we propose a compact nanotube-mode-locked laser that delivers trapped vector pulse and scalar dissipative soliton. The vector pulse exhibits a smooth Gaussian spectral profile without any sidebands. The spectral bandwidth and pulse duration are ~8.5 nm and ~500 fs, respectively. Although two polarization components of the vector pulse have different central wavelengths, they copropagate as a unit in the fiber laser. The scalar dissipative soliton exhibits a rectangular spectrum with a bandwidth of ~12 nm. The duration of the dissipative soliton is ~13 ps, and can be further compressed to ~320 fs external to the cavity. We believe the proposed flexible, compact, low-cost fiber laser can find important applications in the future.

2. Experimental setup

The configuration of the two-color fiber laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the two-color mode-locked fiber laser. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; SMF, single mode fiber; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; SWNT-SA, single-walled carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber; CIR, circulator; LD, laser diode; OC, output coupler; PC, polarization controller; PI-ISO, polarization-insensitive isolator; PS-ISO, polarization-sensitive isolator.
, where the bottom and top parts present the vector pulse laser and scalar soliton laser, respectively. The vector pulse laser has a ring cavity that consists of a piece of 17-m SMF with the group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameter of ~17 ps/km/nm, a polarization-insensitive isolator (PI-ISO) ensuring unidirectional propagation of the signal light, a 10% port of output coupler (OC1) delivering the signal, and a polarization controller (PC1) adjusting the polarization state. The scalar soliton laser is constructed by a piece of 8-m SMF, a polarization-sensitive isolator (PS-ISO), a 10% port of OC2, and a PC2. Both lasers share a segment of 18-m erbium-doped fiber (EDF) with a GVD parameter of ~-16 ps/km/nm, and a packaged SWNT-SA. The fabrication of SWNT-SA film is shown in Ref [38

38. X. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013). [PubMed]

]. The EDF is pumped by a 980-nm laser diode (LD) through a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). Two optical circulators (CIRs) are used to realize dual ring configuration. An optical spectrum analyzer, a commercial autocorrelator (AC), a digital storage oscilloscope, and a radio-frequency (RF) analyzer are used to monitor the laser outputs simultaneously. The output pulse can be polarization-resolved along two birefringence axes with a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and a PC external to the cavity.

3. Experimental results and discussion

The loss between the vector pulse and scalar soliton fiber laser results from the PCs-induced pressures, bends, and twists in the fiber. When the PC2-induced loss is strong while PC1-induced loss is negligible, light propagates in the cavity from port CIR1→2→3→CIR2→1→2. The length and net dispersion of the cavity are about 35.5 m and −0.001 ps2, respectively, and vector pulse tends to be formed at the bottom ring of the fiber laser. Here, the PI-ISO is polarization-insensitive and ensures free evolution of the pulse polarization. Contrastively, when PC1-induced loss is strong while PC2-induced loss is negligible, light propagates in the cavity from port CIR2→2→3→CIR1→1→2. In this case, the PS-ISO works as a polarizer and defines the soliton polarization at the cavity. The length and net dispersion of the cavity are about 25.6 m and 0.2 ps2, respectively, and scalar dissipative soliton can be easily formed at the top ring of the fiber laser.

Self-started mode locking operation can be established in the laser by adjusting the orientations of the PCs. Figure 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical spectra, (b) AC traces, (c)-(e) oscilloscope traces of vector pulse. The insets of Fig. 2(a) are RF spectra of two polarization-resolved components. The red and blue curves denote horizontal and vertical components, respectively.
shows a typical case of the vector pulse measured from OC1 at pump power of 20 mW. The output power of the laser is given as 0.8 mW. The optical spectrum in Fig. 2(a) exhibits a smooth Gaussian profile without any sidebands, which is the typical feature of the stretched-pulse [30

30. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The central wavelength is ~1560 nm and 3-dB spectral bandwidth is ~8.5 nm. Figure 2(b) shows the corresponding AC trace, which is well fitted by a Gaussian profile, resulting in the pulse duration of ~500 fs. The time-bandwidth product (TBP) of the output pulse is about 0.5, indicating that the pulse is slightly chirped. The minor deviation from the value of 0.45 expected for transform-limited Gaussian pulses may be attributed to uncompensated third-order dispersion [30

30. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 2(c) shows a typical equally-spaced uniform pulse train, with ~173 ns interval between the two adjacent pulses, thus giving a repetition rate of ~5.78 MHz. It is note that a polarizer is essential for nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) effect to initiate the passive mode locking [15

15. X. Liu, “Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023811 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 36

36. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9528–9533 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, no polarization sensitive component is introduced into bottom cavity, which indicates that vector pulse operation is induced by the SWNT-SA rather than the NPE effect.

A PBS and a PC external the cavity are used to resolve the vector pulse. Along the vertical-axis of the PBS, at the appropriate PC orientation, spectrum with maximum intensity and a longer central wavelength can be achieved. Meanwhile, the horizontally polarized pulse is delivered from the other axis of PBS. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the two orthogonal polarization components of vector pulse have almost the same spectral intensity. The slight asymmetry between two spectra may be attributed to unsymmetrical gain spectrum of EDF [10

10. D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We note that the two orthogonally polarized components exhibit distinct central wavelengths. The center of the horizontal polarization component is ~1559 nm, while that of the vertical polarization component is ~1563 nm. Different from the soliton trapping formed in large net negative cavity dispersion regime [36

36. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9528–9533 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the center wavelength separation of the two polarization-resolved spectra is as large as ~4 nm. The corresponding 3-dB bandwidths are slightly different, the horizontal component is ~8 nm and the vertical one is ~7 nm. The insets of Fig. 2(a) show RF spectra of polarization-resolved components. Both fundamental frequency are 5.78436 MHz with signal-to-noise ratios of ~70 dB. The AC traces in Fig. 2(b) show that the two orthogonally polarized pulses exhibit nearly identical intensity. If a Gaussian fit is assumed, the durations of horizontal and vertical pulses are ~600 fs and ~700 fs, respectively. The polarization feature of the vector pulse is further reflected in Figs. 2(d) and 2(e). In this case, the oscilloscope traces of two polarization-resolved pulses are uniform without any modulation, which is the typical characteristics of group-velocity locked vector pulse [36

36. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9528–9533 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These experimental results suggest that the pulse trapping can be attributed to the dynamic balance among fiber birefringence, GVD, and frequency shift. The product of the frequency shift and cavity dispersion must be moderate to compensate the polarization dispersion induced by the fiber birefringence. Therefore, for a certain birefringence, the frequency shift should be much larger than that in the large anomalous regime. However, the frequency shift cannot be increased infinitely due to the limitation of the gain bandwidth. The result is different from dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses that have two independent repetition rates [39

39. J. M. Evans, D. E. Spence, D. Burns, and W. Sibbett, “Dual-wavelength self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1074–1076 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Carefully adjusting the orientation of the intra-cavity PC, the two orthogonal polarization components with difference of power can also be obtained.

4. Conclusions

We have proposed a vector- and scalar-pulse source emitted from a compact SWNT-based mode-locking fiber laser for the first time to our best knowledge. The vector pulse is characterized by the smooth Gaussian spectral profile without any sidebands. The bandwidth and duration of the vector pulse are ~8.5 nm and ~500 fs, respectively. Two orthogonal polarization components of vector pulse have distinct central wavelengths while copropagating as a unit in the fiber laser. Contrastively, the scalar dissipative soliton exhibits a rectangular spectrum with the bandwidth of ~12 nm. The duration of the dissipative soliton is ~13 ps, and can be further compressed to ~320 fs external to the cavity. This flexible all-fiber-based laser can provide stable, ultrafast vector- and scalar-pulses which is useful for various applications.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 10874239, 10604066, 61223007, and 11204368.

Corresponding author (X. Liu). Tel.: + 862988881560; fax: + 862988887603; electronic mail: liuxueming72@yahoo.com and liuxm@opt.ac.cn.

References and links

1.

B. Oktem, C. Ulgudur, and F. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

X. M. Liu, “Interaction and motion of solitons in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053828 (2011). [CrossRef]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 3, 3223 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5(2), 392–402 (1988). [CrossRef]

5.

M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14(18), 1011–1013 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

V. V. Afanasjev, “Soliton polarization rotation in fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20(3), 270–272 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 434–439 (1995). [CrossRef]

8.

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 12(8), 614–616 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. E. Korolev, V. N. Nazarov, D. A. Nolan, and C. M. Truesdale, “Experimental observation of orthogonally polarized time-delayed optical soliton trapping in birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 132–134 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation dynamics of vector soliton molecules in mode locked fibre laser,” Sci Rep 3, 3154 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Gong, D. Mao, and L. Duan, “Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7616–7624 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

L. Duan, X. Liu, D. Mao, L. Wang, and G. Wang, “Experimental observation of dissipative soliton resonance in an anomalous-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(1), 265–270 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

L. Yun, X. M. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20992–20997 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Han and X. M. Liu, “Sideband-controllable mode-locking fiber laser based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27045–27050 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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24.

X. Liu, “Mechanism of high-energy pulse generation without wave breaking in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053808 (2010). [CrossRef]

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26.

S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1321–1323 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, and H. Lu, “Compact all-fiber laser delivering conventional and dissipative solitons,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3190–3193 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]

31.

C. Zeng, X. Liu, and L. Yun, “Bidirectional fiber soliton laser mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18937–18942 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

C. Mou, S. Sergeyev, A. Rozhin, and S. Turistyn, “All-fiber polarization locked vector soliton laser using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3831–3833 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

Y. S. Fedotov, S. M. Kobtsev, R. N. Arif, A. G. Rozhin, C. Mou, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Spectrum-, pulsewidth-, and wavelength-switchable all-fiber mode-locked Yb laser with fiber based birefringent filter,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17797–17805 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

J. Xu, S. D. Wu, H. H. Li, J. Liu, R. Y. Sun, F. Z. Tan, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

Y. D. Cui and X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9528–9533 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

X. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013). [PubMed]

39.

J. M. Evans, D. E. Spence, D. Burns, and W. Sibbett, “Dual-wavelength self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1074–1076 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

X. M. Liu and D. Mao, “Compact all-fiber high-energy fiber laser with sub-300-fs duration,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8847–8852 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 14, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 18, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 21, 2014
Published: February 28, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ling Yun, Xueming Liu, and Dongdong Han, "Observation of vector- and scalar-pulse in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Express 22, 5442-5447 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-5-5442


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