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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 9, Iss. 5 — Apr. 29, 2014
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Experimental demonstration of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model vortex beam

Yahong Chen, Fei Wang, Chengliang Zhao, and Yangjian Cai  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 5, pp. 5826-5838 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.005826


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Abstract

Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) vortex beam is introduced as an extension of LGCSM beam which was proposed [Opt. Lett. 38, 91 (2013) Opt. Lett. 38, 1814 (2013)] just recently. Explicit formula for a LGCSM vortex beam propagating through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and the propagation properties of such beam in free space and the focusing properties of such beam are studied numerically. Furthermore, we carry out experimental generation of a LGCSM vortex beam, and studied its focusing properties. It is found that the propagation and focusing properties of a LGCSM vortex beam are different from that of a LGCSM beam, and we can shape the beam profile of a LGCSM vortex at the focal plane (or in the far field) by varying its initial spatial coherence. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions, and our results will be useful for particle trapping.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

2. Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model vortex beam: Theory

In the space-time domain, the statistical properties of a scalar partially coherent beam are characterized by the mutual coherence function. For a LGCSM beam, its mutual coherence function is defined as [20

20. Z. Mei and O. Korotkova, “Random sources generating ring-shaped beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 91–93 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
Γ(r1,r2)=G0exp[r12+r224σ02(r1r2)22δ02]Ln0[(r1r2)22δ02],
(1)
whereG0 is a constant which has dimension of an optical intensity, r1(x1,y1) and r2(x2,y2) are two arbitrary transverse position vectors at z = 0, σ0 and δ0 are the transverse beam width and the transverse coherence width of the LGCSM beam, respectively, Ln0 denotes the Laguerre polynomial of mode order n and 0. The degree of coherence of the LGCSM beam at z = 0 is given as
μ(r1,r2)=Γ(r1,r2)Γ(r1,r1)Γ(r2,r2)=exp[(r1r2)22δ02]Ln0[(r1r2)22δ02].
(2)
From Eq. (2), one finds that the degree of coherence of the LGCSM beam doesn’t satisfy Gaussian distribution. Under the condition of n = 0, Eq. (1) reduces to the expression for the mutual coherence function of a GSM beam [1

1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

,2

2. E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge University, 2007)

].

If a LGCSM beam passes through a spiral phase plate with transmission function T(φ)=exp(imφ) where m denotes the topological charge and φ denotes the azimuthal coordinate (i.e., T(x,y)=exp[imarctan(y/x)] in the Cartesian coordinates), the transmitted beam will carry a vortex phase and its mutual coherence function can be expressed as
Γ(r1,r2)=G0exp[r12+r224σ02(r1r2)22δ02]Ln0[(r1r2)22δ02]exp(imφ1+imφ2).
(3)
We call the transmitted beam as LGCSM vortex beam. Due to the vortex phase, the LGCSM vortex beam exhibits unique propagation properties as shown later. Under the condition of n = 0, Eq. (3) reduces to the expression for the mutual coherence function of a GSM vortex beam [33

33. F. Wang, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the focusing properties of a Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3281–3283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Within the validity of the paraxial approximation, the propagation of the mutual coherence function of the LGSM vortex beam through a stigmatic ABCD optical system can be studied with the help of the following generalized Collins formula [36

36. S. A. Collins Jr., “Lens-system diffraction integral written in terms of matrix optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60(9), 1168–1177 (1970). [CrossRef]

, 37

37. Q. Lin and Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
Γ(ρ1,ρ2)=1(λB)2exp[ikD2B(ρ12ρ22)]×Γ(r1,r2)exp[ikA2B(r12r22)+ikB(r1ρ1r2ρ2)]d2r1d2r2,
(4)
where A, B, C and D are the elements of a transfer matrix for the optical system, k=2π/λ is the wavenumber with λ being the wavelength.

For the convenience of integration, we introduce the following “sum” and “difference” coordinates:
rs=r1+r22,Δr=r1r2,
(5)
ρs=ρ1+ρ22,Δρ=ρ1ρ2.
(6)
Substituting Eqs. (3), (5) and (6) into Eq. (4), we obtain
Γ(ρs,Δρ)=G0(λB)2exp[ikDBρsΔρ]×P+*(rs+Δr2)P(rsΔr2)γ(Δr)exp[ikB(Δrρs+rsΔρ)]d2rsd2Δr,
(7)
where
P+*(rs+Δr2)=exp[(14σ02ikA2B)(rs+Δr2)2]exp(imφ+),
(8)
P(rsΔr2)=exp[(14σ02+ikA2B)(rsΔr2)2]exp(imφ),
(9)
γ(Δr)=exp[Δr22δ02]Ln0[Δr22δ02].
(10)
with φ±=arctan[(ys±Δy/2)/(xs±Δx/2)].

P+*(rs+Δr/2) andP(rsΔr/2) can be expressed in terms of their Fourier transforms P+*˜(u1/λB), P˜(u2/λB) as follows

P+*(rs+Δr2)=1(λB)2P+*˜(u1λB)exp(ikB(rs+Δr2)u1)d2u1,
(11)
P(rsΔr2)=1(λB)2P˜(u2λB)exp(ikB(rsΔr2)u2)d2u2.
(12)

Substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq. (7), after some integration, the mutual coherence function of the LGCSM vortex beam in the output plane is obtained as
Γ(ρs,Δρ)=G0(λB)4exp[ikBρsΔρ]×P˜+*(u1λB)P˜(u1+ΔρλB)γ˜(u1+ρs+Δρ/2λB)d2u1,
(13)
where γ˜(·)represents the Fourier transform of γ(·), i.e.,

γ˜(u)=γ(r)exp(2πiur)d2r.
(14)

The average intensity of the LGCSM vortex beam in the output plane is obtained as
I(ρ)=Γ(ρs,Δρ)ρ1=ρ2=G0(λB)4P˜+*(u1λB)P˜(u1λB)γ˜(u1+ρλB)d2u1,
(15)
with
γ˜(u1+ρλB)=4πδ0222n1n![8π2δ02(u1+ρλB)2]nexp[2π2δ02(u1+ρλB)2],
(16)
P˜+*(u1λB)P˜(u1λB)=π5|σ(B)|6u124(λB)2×|exp[[σ(B)π]22(λB)2u12][I12m12([σ(B)π]22(λB)2u12)I12m+12([σ(B)π]22(λB)2u12)]|2.
(17)
Here σ(B)=(1/4σ02ikA/2B)1/2, and Iα is the modified Bessel function of order α,u1 is the radial coordinate.

Under the condition of n=0, Eq. (15) reduces to the expression for the average intensity of the GSM vortex beam in the output plane [33

33. F. Wang, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the focusing properties of a Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3281–3283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Under the condition of m = 0, Eq. (15) reduces to the following expression for the average intensity of a LGCSM beam in the output plane

I(ρ,z)=2n1G0(kB)2σ*2(B)σ2(B)δ02n+2[(σ*2(B)+σ2(B)+2δ02)]n1×exp[(k2B)22δ02(σ*2(B)+σ2(B))(σ*2(B)+σ2(B)+2δ02)ρ2]Ln[(k2B)2(σ*2(B)+σ2(B))2(σ*2(B)+σ2(B)+2δ02)ρ2].
(18)

First, we study the propagation properties of a LGCSM vortex beam and a LGCSM beam in free space, comparatively. The transfer matrix for free space of distance z reads as

(ABCD)=(1z01).
(19)

Fig. 1 Normalized intensity distribution (cross lineρy=0) of a LGCSM vortex beam with n = 1 and m = 3 at several propagation distances in free space for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0.
Applying Eqs. (15) and (19), we calculate in Fig. 1 the normalized intensity distribution (cross line ρy=0) of a LGCSM vortex beam at several propagation distances in free space for different values of the initial coherence width δ0 with n=1, m=3, σ0=1mm and λ=632.8nm. For the convenience of comparison, applying Eqs. (18) and (19), we calculate in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized intensity (cross lineρy=0) of a LGCSM beam with n = 1 at several propagation distances in free space for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0.
the normalized intensity distribution (cross line ρy=0) of a LGCSM beam at several propagation distances in free space for different values of the initial coherence width δ0 with n=1, σ0=1mm and λ=632.8nm. One finds from Figs. 1 and 2 that both the LGCSM beam and the LGCSM vortex beam exhibit interesting propagation properties. When the initial coherence width is small, the intensity distribution of a LGCSM beam in the far field has a dark hollow beam profile [see Figs. 2(a-1)–2(d-1)], which is consistent with the result reported in [20

20. Z. Mei and O. Korotkova, “Random sources generating ring-shaped beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 91–93 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The evolution properties of the intensity distribution of a LGCSM vortex beam with low coherence on propagation in free space is similar to that of a LGCSM beam [see Figs. 1(a-1)–1(d-1)], and it also has a dark hollow beam profile in the far field. With the increase of the initial coherence width, the far-field intensity distribution of a LGCSM beam or a LGCSM vortex beam varies. For a LGCSM beam, the far-field dark hollow beam profile disappears gradually and finally the far-field Gaussian beam profile is formed as the initial coherence width increases. For a LGCSM vortex beam, the far-field dark hollow beam profile also disappears gradually as the initial coherence width increases, while the far-field dark hollow beam profile appears again when the initial coherence width is large [see Fig. 1(d-5)], which is quite different from that of a LGCSM beam. The above interesting phenomenon can be explained in the following way. The effect of spatial correlation function on the evolution properties of a partially coherent beam plays a dominate role only when the initial coherence is low, and its effect can be neglected when the initial coherence is high. For a LGCSM beam with low coherence, its evolution properties are mainly determined by its Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function, and its far-field intensity has a dark hollow beam profile due to the effect of the Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function. For a LGCSM beam with high coherence, the effect of Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function can be neglected, and the evolution properties of a LGCSM beam is similar to that of a GSM beam. For a LGCSM vortex beam, its evolution properties are determined by the Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function and the vortex phase together. When the initial coherence is low, the Laguerre-Gaussian function plays a dominant role and the effect of vortex phase can be neglected, the far-field intensity of the LGCSM vortex beam has a dark hollow beam due to the effect of the Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function. When the initial coherence is high, the effect of the vortex phase plays a dominant role and the effect of Laguerre-Gaussian correlation function can be neglected, the far-field intensity of the LGCSM vortex beam has a dark hollow beam due to the effect of the vortex phase, which induces a phase singularity in the beam center.

Now we study the focusing properties of a LGCSM vortex beam and a LGCSM beam in free space, comparatively. Assume that a thin lens with focal length f is located at the source plane (z = 0), and the output plane is located at the geometrical focal plane, then the transfer matrix between the source plane and output plane reads as

(ABCD)=(1f01)(101/f1)=(0f1/f1).
(20)

Fig. 3 Normalized intensity (cross lineρy=0) of a focused LGCSM vortex beam with n = 1 and m = 3 at the focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0.
Fig. 4 Normalized intensity (cross lineρy=0) of a focused LGCSM beam with n = 1 at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0.
Applying Eqs. (15), (18) and (20), we calculate in Fig. 3 the normalized intensity distribution (cross line ρy=0) of a LGCSM vortex beam at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence width δ0 with n=1 and m=3, and in Fig. 4 the normalized intensity distribution (cross line ρy=0) of a LGCSM beam at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence width δ0 with n=1. The other parameters are chosen as σ0=1mm, λ=632.8nm and f = 40cm. One finds from Figs. 3 and 4 that the dependence of the focused intensity of a LGCSM vortex beam or LGCSM beam on the initial coherence width is similar to the dependence of the far-field intensity of such beam on initial coherence width. In fact the intensity profile of a beam in the in the focal plane of a converging lens is necessarily the same (with suitable scaling factors) as the intensity profile of the beam in the far field. When the initial coherence width is small, the intensity of a LGCSM beam or LGCSM vortex beam at the geometrical focal plane has a dark hollow beam profile. With the increase of the initial coherence width, the dark hollow beam profile of a LGCSM beam or LGCSM vortex beam at the geometrical focal plane disappears gradually. When the initial coherence is large, at the geometrical focal plane, the intensity of a LGCSM beam has a Gaussian beam profile, while the intensity of a LGCSM vortex beam has a dark hollow beam profile. For suitable values of the initial coherence width, the intensity of a LGCSM beam or a LGCSM vortex exhibits flat-topped beam profile. Thus, modulating the spatial coherence of a LGCSM vortex beam or a LGCSM beam provides one way for shaping its focused beam profile, which will be useful for particle trapping, where a focused Gaussian or flat-topped beam spot is used to trap a Rayleigh particle whose refractive index is larger than that of the ambient and a dark hollow beam spot is used to trap a Rayleigh particle whose refractive index is smaller than that of the ambient [38

38. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40

40. C. Zhao and Y. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model vortex beam: experiment

In this section, we report experimental generation of a LGCSM vortex beam with controllable spatial coherence, and carried out experimental measurement of its focusing properties.

Fig. 5 Experimental setup for generating a LGCSM vortex beam and measuring its focused intensity. BE, beam expander; SLM, spatial light modulator; CA, circular aperture; L1, L2, L3, thin lenses; GAF, Gaussian amplitude filter; RGGD, rotating ground-glass disk; GAF, Gaussian amplitude filter; SPP, spiral phase plate; BPA, beam profile analyzer; PC1, PC2, personal computers.
In this paper, we generate LGCSM vortex beam through conversion of a LGCSM beam with the help of a spiral phase plate. In Ref [21

21. F. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of partially coherent beams with different complex degrees of coherence,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1814–1816 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], it is shown that a LGCSM beam of mode order n can be formed when an incoherent beam whose intensity distribution has a dark hollow beam profile and is expressed as I(v)=(v2/ω02)nexp(2v2/ω02)passes through free space with length f, a thin lens with focal length f and a Gaussian amplitude filter (GAF), and the spatial coherence width of the generated LGCSM beam can be approximated as δ0=λf/πw0. Part 1 of Fig. 5 shows our experimental setup for generating a LGCSM vortex beam. A beam emitted from the He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm) passes through a beam expander, then it goes towards a spatial light modulator (SLM, Holoeye LC2002), which acts as phase grating designed by the method of computer-generated holograms. Here the pattern of the phase grating for generating a dark hollow beam with n = 1 is shown as inset in Fig. 5. The first order of the beam from the SLM is a dark hollow beam with n = 1 and is selected out by a circular aperture. After passing through a thin lens L1, the generated dark hollow beam illuminates a rotating ground-glass disk (RGGD), producing an incoherent beam with dark hollow beam profile. The beam from the RGGD can be regarded as a spatially incoherent beam if the diameter of the beam spot on the RGGD is larger than the inhomogeneity scale of the ground glass [41

41. P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, “An example of Collet-Wolf source,” Opt. Commun. 29(3), 256–260 (1979). [CrossRef]

], and this condition is satisfied in our case. After passing through free space with length f2, the thin lens L2, and the GAF, the generated incoherent dark hollow beam becomes a LGCSM beam with n = 1 [21

21. F. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of partially coherent beams with different complex degrees of coherence,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1814–1816 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. After passing through a spiral phase plate (SPP) with topological charge m = 3, the generated LGCSM beam becomes a LGCSM vortex beam. The SPP just adds a vortex phase to the LGCSM beam, and it doesn’t alter its spatial coherence and its intensity distribution in the source plane, thus the spatial coherence width and the intensity distribution of generated LGCSM vortex beam are the same with those of the generated LGCSM beam. The spatial coherence width of the generated LGCSM beam is modulated by varying the beam spot on the RGGD through varying the distance between the thin lens L1 and the RGGD.

The degree of coherence (i.e., correlation function) and the spatial coherence width of the generated LGCSM beam can be measured by using the method proposed in Ref [42

42. F. Wang and Y. Cai, “Experimental observation of fractional Fourier transform for a partially coherent optical beam with Gaussian statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1937–1944 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As illustrated in [21

21. F. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of partially coherent beams with different complex degrees of coherence,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1814–1816 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and [42

42. F. Wang and Y. Cai, “Experimental observation of fractional Fourier transform for a partially coherent optical beam with Gaussian statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1937–1944 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the generated partially coherent beam is split into two distinct imaging optical paths by a 50:50 beam splitter, and the transmitted beam and reflected beam go to two single-photon detectors, respectively. By measuring the fourth-order correlation function between the detectors, we can obtain the distribution of the square of the degree of coherence of the generated beam with the help of the Gaussian moment theorem (i.e., internal relation between second-order and fourth-order correlation function) [1

1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

].

Part 2 of Fig. 5 shows our experimental setup of measuring the focused intensity distribution of the generated LGCSM beam. The generated beam first passes through a thin lens L3 with focal lengthf3=40cm, and then arrives at the beam profile analyzer (BPA), which measures the focused intensity. The elements of the transfer matrix between the source plane and the BPA read as

A=0,B=f3,C=1/f3,D=1.
(21)

Fig. 6 Experimental results of (a) the intensity distribution and (b) the corresponding cross line (dotted curve) of the generated LGCSM beam with n = 1 in the source plane. The solid curve is a result of the theoretical fit.
Figure 6 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding cross line (dotted curve) of the generated LGCSM beam in the source plane. The solid curve is a result of the theoretical fit. It is clear from Fig. 6 that the intensity distribution of the generated beam in the source plane has a Gaussian profile as expected. Through theoretical fit (solid curve) of the experimental results, we obtain that σ0 is about 1mm.
Fig. 7 Experimental results of the square of the modulus of the generated LGCSM beam for different values of the initial coherence width in the source plane. The solid curve is a result of the theoretical fit.
In our experiment, we generate several LGCSM beams and LGCSM vortex beams with different initial coherence widths in order to study the influence of coherence width on the focusing properties, and Fig. 7 shows our experimental results of the square of the modulus of the generated LGCSM beam for different values of the initial coherence width in the source plane. Through theoretical fit of the experimental results, we obtain δ0=0.1mm,0.2mm,0.38mm,0.52mm,0.82mm,1.35mm,2.0mmfor Figs. 7(a)7(g), respectively. With the measured beam parameters and formulae derived in section 2, we can simulate the focusing properties of the generated beam, and compare with the corresponding results.

Fig. 8 Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding cross line (ρy=0) of the generated LGCSM beam with n = 1 at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0. The solid curve denotes the theoretical results calculated by Eq. (18).
Fig. 9 Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding cross line (ρy=0) of the generated LGCSM vortex beam with n = 1 and m = 3 at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0. The solid curve denotes the theoretical results calculated by Eq. (15).
Figure 8 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding cross line (ρy=0) of the generated LGCSM beam with n = 1 at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0. Figure 9 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding cross line (ρy=0) of the generated LGCSM vortex beam with n = 1 and m = 3 at the geometrical focal plane for different values of the initial coherence widthδ0. For the case ofδ0=Infinity, the rotating round-glass disk completely removed from our experimental setup. For the convenience of comparison, the corresponding numerical results calculated by the formulae derived in section 2 are also shown in Figs. 8 and 9. One finds from Figs. 8 and 9 that the focused intensities of the generated LGCSM beams and LGCSM vortex beams indeed are modulated through varying the initial coherence width as expected by Figs. 3 and 4, and our experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

4. Summary

We have introduced the theoretical model for a new partially coherent vortex beam with special correlation function named LGCSM vortex beam as an extension of recently introduced LGCSM beam, and we have derived the explicit propagation formulae for such beam propagating through a stigmatic ABCD optical system. The propagation properties of a LGCSM beam and a LGCSM vortex beam have been studied comparatively, and it is found that they exhibit different propagation properties. Furthermore, we have carried out experimental generation of a LGCSM vortex beam through converting a LGCSM beam to such beam by a spiral phase plate, and studied the focusing properties of a LGCSM beam and a LGCSM vortex beam comparatively both in theory and in experiment. We have found that we can shape the intensity distribution of a LGCSM beam and a LGCSM vortex beam through varying its initial coherence width, and our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical results. Our results will be useful for particle trapping, where focused beam spot with special beam profile is required.

Acknowledgments

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L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Y. Yang, Y. Dong, C. Zhao, Y. Liu, and Y. Cai, “Autocorrelation properties of fully coherent beam with and without orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2925–2932 (2014). [CrossRef]

29.

G. Gbur and T. D. Visser, “Coherence vortices in partially coherent beams,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 117–125 (2003). [CrossRef]

30.

W. Wang and M. Takeda, “Coherence current, coherence vortex, and the conservation law of coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(22), 223904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

G. V. Bogatyryova, C. V. Fel’de, P. V. Polyanskii, S. A. Ponomarenko, M. S. Soskin, and E. Wolf, “Partially coherent vortex beams with a separable phase,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 878–880 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

T. van Dijk and T. D. Visser, “Evolution of singularities in a partially coherent vortex beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(4), 741–744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

F. Wang, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the focusing properties of a Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3281–3283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

C. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Dong, Y. Han, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on determining the topological charge of a vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261104 (2012). [CrossRef]

35.

X. Liu, Y. Shen, L. Liu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Experimental demonstration of vortex phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5323–5326 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

S. A. Collins Jr., “Lens-system diffraction integral written in terms of matrix optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60(9), 1168–1177 (1970). [CrossRef]

37.

Q. Lin and Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010). [CrossRef]

40.

C. Zhao and Y. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, and C. Palma, “An example of Collet-Wolf source,” Opt. Commun. 29(3), 256–260 (1979). [CrossRef]

42.

F. Wang and Y. Cai, “Experimental observation of fractional Fourier transform for a partially coherent optical beam with Gaussian statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1937–1944 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
(030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 21, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 27, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2014
Published: March 5, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Yahong Chen, Fei Wang, Chengliang Zhao, and Yangjian Cai, "Experimental demonstration of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model vortex beam," Opt. Express 22, 5826-5838 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-5-5826


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References

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  28. Y. Yang, Y. Dong, C. Zhao, Y. Liu, Y. Cai, “Autocorrelation properties of fully coherent beam with and without orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2925–2932 (2014). [CrossRef]
  29. G. Gbur, T. D. Visser, “Coherence vortices in partially coherent beams,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 117–125 (2003). [CrossRef]
  30. W. Wang, M. Takeda, “Coherence current, coherence vortex, and the conservation law of coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(22), 223904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. G. V. Bogatyryova, C. V. Fel’de, P. V. Polyanskii, S. A. Ponomarenko, M. S. Soskin, E. Wolf, “Partially coherent vortex beams with a separable phase,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 878–880 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. van Dijk, T. D. Visser, “Evolution of singularities in a partially coherent vortex beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(4), 741–744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. F. Wang, S. Zhu, Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the focusing properties of a Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3281–3283 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Dong, Y. Han, Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on determining the topological charge of a vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261104 (2012). [CrossRef]
  35. X. Liu, Y. Shen, L. Liu, F. Wang, Y. Cai, “Experimental demonstration of vortex phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5323–5326 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. A. Collins., “Lens-system diffraction integral written in terms of matrix optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60(9), 1168–1177 (1970). [CrossRef]
  37. Q. Lin, Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Y. Zhang, B. Ding, T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010). [CrossRef]
  40. C. Zhao, Y. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. P. De Santis, F. Gori, G. Guattari, C. Palma, “An example of Collet-Wolf source,” Opt. Commun. 29(3), 256–260 (1979). [CrossRef]
  42. F. Wang, Y. Cai, “Experimental observation of fractional Fourier transform for a partially coherent optical beam with Gaussian statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1937–1944 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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