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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 9, Iss. 5 — Apr. 29, 2014
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Nanosecond colloidal quantum dot lasers for sensing

B. Guilhabert, C. Foucher, A-M. Haughey, E. Mutlugun, Y. Gao, J. Herrnsdorf, H.D. Sun, H.V. Demir, M.D. Dawson, and N. Laurand  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 7308-7319 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.007308


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Abstract

Low-threshold, gain switched colloidal quantum dot (CQD) distributed-feedback lasers operating in the nanosecond regime are reported and proposed for sensing applications for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. The lasers are based on a mechanically-flexible polymeric, second order grating structure overcoated with a thin-film of CQD/PMMA composite. The threshold fluence of the resulting lasers is as low as 0.5 mJ/cm2 for a 610 nm emission and the typical linewidth is below 0.3 nm. The emission wavelength of the lasers can be set at the design stage and laser operation between 605 nm and 616 nm, while using the exact same CQD gain material, is shown. In addition, the potential of such CQD lasers for refractive index sensing in solution is demonstrated by immersion in water.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Herein, we report “hybrid plastic” CdSe/ZnS CQD lasers, i.e. made from an inorganic gain material in combination with a polymer cavity, operating in the nanosecond regime when gain-switched with 5 ns-long pump pulses. One identified barrier to operation in such a temporal regime when using CQDs is the effect of Auger recombination, which basically limits the optical gain lifetime [5

5. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Circumventing or minimizing this problem necessitates optimization of the gain medium (e.g. using a high-density of CQDs [6

6. V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) and/or of the cavity (e.g. with a low-loss optical cavity [9

9. J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). In our work, CQD lasers with a few nanosecond-pulse duration are made possible by utilizing a planar distributed feedback cavity that includes a high surface quality thin film made of an optimized CQD-composite. Importantly, the planar thin film architecture of DFB lasers enables low-threshold oscillation thanks to a simple and efficient optical excitation of the gain medium as well as an adequate laser mode confinement. The resulting lasers have, to our knowledge, the lowest threshold for such a pulse duration (as low as 0.5 mJ/cm2, 100 kW/cm2), making them suitable for pumping with compact solid-state lasers. The DFB structure chosen here also enables emission wavelength versatility at the design stage through fine tuning of the cavity parameters: our lasers are shown to operate over a 11-nm spectral window in this way, while using the same CQD gain material. Furthermore, for ease-of-implementation, our DFB lasers are designed for vertical emission and, by way of example for applications, we demonstrate their potential for sensing.

In the following, the design structure of our DFB lasers is explained and details on sample fabrication as well as a description of the experimental set-ups are given in section 2. Optical characterization of thin films of CQD dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA), which are used as gain material in our lasers, and their capability to sustain stimulated emission are presented in section 3.1. The experimental demonstration of laser operation under optical pumping in the nanosecond-regime is then reported and discussed in section 3.2. Finally, in section 3.3, proof-of-principle refractive index sensing is demonstrated by immersing lasers in water and monitoring the shift in the emission wavelength. This basic capability demonstration paves the way for further studies of the application of CQD lasers to (bio-) sensing.

2. Device structure, materials and methods

2.1. Laser structure

Fig. 1 a) Schematic of a DFB laser based on a second order grating, b) the effective refractive index of the modes plotted against the thickness of a film of refractive index 1.8. For thicknesses between 130 nm and 160 nm, only the TE0 mode can oscillate, c) Normalised TE 0 mode profile for a film thickness of 160 nm matching the propagation condition indicated in b) by the circle (neff ∼1.566).

2.2. Materials and sample preparation

The CQDs used in the following study are based on CdSe as core material surrounded with a ZnS shell. These CQDs were obtained commercially (Lumidots from Sigma-Aldrich Ltd.) initially dispersed in toluene at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. The solution has a photoluminescence (PL) emission centred at 590 nm as specified by the datasheet with a full width at half the maximum (FWHM) of ∼40 nm owing the size distribution of these nanocrystals within the solution. To obtain high-quality thin films, the CQDs were blended with PMMA for an optimum CQD/PMMA weight ratio (w/r) of 50/1.6. Powder of PMMA (molecular weight 120,000), toluene and chloroform were also bought from Sigma-Aldrich Ltd. The solvents were further purified through a 0.2 μm PTFE filter to reduce possible contamination from storage. The blending of the CQDs into a PMMA solution was carried out in air and at room temperature and ambient humidity level. First a solution of PMMA in chloroform/toluene was prepared using adequate amount of PMMA powder and an equal amount of chloroform and toluene. The solution was thoroughly mixed using a vortexer and a sonication bath. Then, 1 mg of CQDs in solution were dried out from the toluene content using a membrane vacuum pump. An adequate volume of PMMA solution was then added to the dried CQDs followed by mixing and sonication bath treatment to ensure their full re-dispersion within the new solution. The study of stimulated emission relies on the coating of a cleaned glass slide (n∼1.45) by a thin film of CQD/PMMA material, subsequently annealed in air on a hotplate at 30 °C for 10 min. The cleaning procedure of the glass slide was carried out by subsequent baths in acetone, methanol and deionized water under sonification. Additionally, polymer substrates (NOA85 n∼1.46) were also used to form films of CQD/PMMA. Afterwards, the samples were cleaved using a diamond-tip pen. The surfaces of typical samples were inspected by atomic force microscope giving surface root mean square roughness of 5.6 nm and 6 nm over 20 μm × 20 μm areas, respectively, for silica and polymer substrates. A representative film edge scanning electron microscope micrograph of the samples is given in Fig. 2. The thickness of the composite film was estimated to be around 155 nm, which matches the design guidelines shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscopy images showing the edge of a representative cleaved film of CQD/PMMA composite on a Si/SiO2 substrate.

The DFB cavities were made by templating a silica master containing a one dimensional, second order diffraction grating (with periods of 390 nm or 400 nm and 50 nm modulation depth) with a liquid optical adhesive, which conforms to the master, hardens in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) flooding and enables straightforward release from the master. The optical adhesive was an acrylate-based Norland Products material with a refractive index of ∼1.46 (wavelength in the visible not specified) and was supported by a commercial acetate sheet. A first short exposure (30 s, at ∼26.5 mJ/cm2) under UV was realized through the acetate sheet, the acrylate polymer film was then released from the silica master and a final UV cure followed to bring the full curing dose to 3.5 J/cm2. To fabricate the DFB lasers, CQD/PMMA was spin-coated onto the acrylate polymer grating to form a film of the desired thickness. The film was then annealed in air on a hotplate at 30 °C for 10 min.

2.3. Experimental setups

Prior to laser demonstration, thin films of CQD/PMMA on flat substrates were characterized in terms of PL and were assessed for their capabilities to sustain stimulated emission (through detection of amplified spontaneous emission, ASE). The PL spectra were recorded using a Jobin-Yvon TRIAX spectrometer under continuous wave excitation with a 374-nm-emitting laser diode either focused on the sample with a 60× magnification microscope objective for top emission PL (spot size of ∼2 μm) or focused in a stripe on the side of the sample for edge emission PL (stripe size ∼3.5 mm × 0.2 mm). The collection was realized through the same microscope objective. The studies carried out for stimulated emission and DFB lasers were both carried out with a pulsed ultraviolet laser light at a 355-nm wavelength, with 5-ns pulse duration and a 10-Hz repetition rate. Control of the pump energy delivered to the samples was achieved by rotating a λ/2 waveplate followed by a polarizer and an attenuator wheel, while monitoring the value with an energy meter. In both cases, the optical beam was shaped into a collimated stripe of 2.9 mm × 0.3 mm FWHM. The sample emission was collected by a 50-μm-core optical fiber, which was connected to a CCD-spectrometer with respective spectral resolution of 2.5 nm for stimulated emission measurement and 0.13 nm for the DFB lasers. In the case of the stimulated emission studies, emission from the sample edge was collected by the optical fiber (Fig. 3(a)). In the case of the DFB lasers, the emission normal to the device surface was collected, focussed into the optical fiber and the residual pump beam was filtered out with a dichroic mirror. Figure 3(b) is an optical image of the edge of a CQD/PMMA film as seen by the optical fiber under the stimulated emission experiment. Figure 3(c) gives a schematic of the optical setup. Figure 3(d) shows a DFB laser under optical pumping with its fan-shaped emission (red) and the residual non-absorbed pump beam (ultraviolet).

Fig. 3 a) Optical pumping setup for amplified spontaneous emission, b) edge of the film under nanosecond excitation in the stimulated emission regime as seen by the collecting optical fiber (scale bar is 0.4 mm), c) schematic of DFB laser characterisation, d) DFB laser under optical pumping (dichroic mirror removed) (scale bar is 10 mm).

3. Experimental results and discussion

3.1. Photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission

The top and edge PL spectra of CQD films excited in the UV at 371 nm were first measured. The CQDs were at a concentration of 50 mg/mL, dispersed in PMMA solution at 1.6 mg/mL (50/1.6 w/r) and spin-coated on a glass substrate. The top emission PL of the film was recorded and shows that the emission of core/shell CQDs within a PMMA matrix peaks at a wavelength of 590 nm in accordance with the stated value in the data sheet (Fig. 4(a)). The edge PL of the sample is red-shifted by 7 nm (to 597 nm) with respect to the top PL. This is caused by the re-absorption effects of the intrinsic emission as it propagates in the film due to the relatively small Stokes shift (∼20 nm) of the CQDs. In addition, PL quantum yield (PLQY) was measured using an 8-inch integrating sphere and a continuous wave pump source emitting at 450 nm. The resulting PLQY for the aforementioned film of spin-coated CQD/PMMA nanocomposite is 15%.

Fig. 4 a) Top and edge micro-photoluminescence spectra under 371 nm optical excitation of core/shell CQDs dispersed at a concentration of 50 mg/mL in a PMMA solution at 1.6 mg/mL. The sample was processed by spin-coating on a silica substrate. b) Stimulated emission spectrum of the previous film under nanosecond optical pumping. The dashed line in both figures represents the peak wavelength of the stimulated emission spectrum.

The evolution of the edge emission from a film under nanosecond optical excitation was investigated using the setup of Fig. 3(a). The spectral shape is seen to significantly change above a certain excitation value (ASE threshold or transparency value) with a narrower peak developing and dominating the PL as the excitation is further increased. Figure 4(b) shows such an ASE spectrum of the core/shell CQDs as recorded at a pumping fluence several times higher than the transparency value. The ASE peak develops around 611 nm with a FWHM of ∼4.4 nm as fitted with a Gaussian curve (fit details not given). The peak value of the ASE is red-shifted compared to the edge PL peak as measured in the edge configuration PL (597 nm, Fig. 4(a). This behavior is typical of core/shell CQDs systems and is attributed to photo-induced absorption phenomena within the CQDs and/or possible bi-exciton binding energy [6

6. V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These results indicate that the CQD/PMMA film can sustain stimulated emission. Hence it can be used as laser gain region.

Interestingly, a variation in the composition of the CQD/PMMA composite is reflected in the ASE behavior of similarly processed films and on similar substrates (e.g., amorphous glass in this case). As shown in Fig. 5(a), the ASE for a composite with a lower loading of PMMA (1.6 mg/mL, 50/1.6 w/r) has a threshold about 3-fold smaller at 1 mJ/cm2 in comparison to nanocomposite with 16.6 mg/mL PMMA (50/16.6 w/r). In parallel, the stimulated emission peaks at different wavelengths for these two composites are shown in Fig. 5(b). The most red-shifted ASE peak (611 nm) corresponds to the sample with the highest loading of CQDs. The difference in the stimulated emission spectra is attributed to a higher volume fraction of active material in the spin-coated films with low amount of PMMA. Re-absorption phenomena are then more prominent and affect the ASE development. However, there are also more CQDs participating in the amplification process, thus leading to lower thresholds.

Fig. 5 a) Transfer function of the ASE from CQDs/PMMA composite samples spin-coated on glass. These data show different CQD/PMMA w/r combination and how it affects their thresholds. b) Further details on the spectral emission of the ASE peaks for different composition of materials.

3.2. Distributed feedback lasers demonstrations

Figure 6(a) shows the transfer function of a typical DFB laser made with a grating periodicity Λ =390 nm and the optimized CQD/PMMA thin-film described previously as the gain layer. An established laser regime with a 0.50-mJ/cm2 threshold is measured for an emission at 610 nm as depicted in Fig. 6(a) and (b), respectively. The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emitted laser beam, pictured in the inset of Fig. 6(a), follows the expected fan-shape typical of a one-dimensional vertical emitting DFB laser. Similar results are obtained for a 400-nm-periodicity DFB laser (Fig. 6(c)). In that case, the threshold is 0.85 mJ/cm2. One can notice a transition region near but below threshold (pump fluence between 0.60 mJ/cm2 and 0.85 mJ/cm2) where the increase in intensity is not linear as opposed to the established regime (fluences ≥0.85 mJ/cm2). A closer inspection of the spectrum evolution is given in Fig. 6(d) (in logarithmic scale). Stimulated emission with a narrow spectrum is already taking place for pumping fluence between 0.60 and 0.70 mJ/cm2. The resulting “soft” threshold is sometimes observed in DFB lasers made of high-gain thin films and is an indication that a significant amount of spontaneous emission is coupled into the laser mode [22

22. Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, and G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 6 DFB laser demonstrations made using a polymer grating of refractive index 1.46 with core/shell CQDs at a concentration of 50 mg/mL in a PMMA host matrix at 1.6 mg/mL (50/1.6 w/r) with periodicity of Λ=390 nm (a and b) and Λ=400 nm (c and d). a) and c) are the power transfer functions and b) and d) are the emission spectra of the DFB lasers.

Fig. 7 a) Discrete tuning demonstration of the distributed feedback lasers based on CQD/PMMA gain layer by varying its film thickness or the grating period (390 and 400 nm). The ASE spectrum is plotted alongside to guide the reader for the maximum of the gain spectrum. b) Summary of the measured threshold to the lasing wavelength. The highlighted region is the 1/e2 of the stimulated emission spectrum in the saturated regime. c) Optical pulse duration of the pump and CQD DFB laser.
Fig. 8 Comparison of reported laser thresholds for devices based on CQDs as the gain material expressed in terms of fluence (top section) and power density (bottom section) against the pump pulse duration. Data shown above represent: VCSEL (diamonds), WGM (triangles), DFB lasers (circles) and this work (stars).

3.3. Refractive index sensing

Fig. 9 a) Schematic of refractive index sensing of liquid medium using CQD/PMMA DFB lasers, b) bulk refractive index sensing results of deionised water (n≈1.33), c) wavelength and emission intensity of a DFB laser cycled between air and water media.

4. Conclusion

We have reported on the design and fabrication of DFB lasers made with CQDs as gain materials dispersed in a PMMA matrix to obtain high quality films. Stimulated emission and single transverse mode DFB lasers are demonstrated under 5 ns pulsed excitation at 355 nm for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. DFB lasers with oscillation thresholds as low as 0.50 mJ/cm2 were achieved for 610 nm emission with a FWHM linewidth below 0.3 nm. Optical pumping of such plastic CQD devices with compact solid-state lasers is therefore already possible. Laser emission over 11 nm, from 605 to 616 nm, is also shown by tuning the cavity parameters, e.g., gain material thickness and/or the periodicity of the DFB grating. Finally, the first step towards the usage of CQD DFB lasers in a “real-world” application was taken with the demonstration of laser operation in a liquid environment. A 4 nm red-shift of the DFB laser emission was detected upon immersion in water. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of CQD lasers for future applications.

Acknowledgments

The help of Dr. P. Edwards from the Physics Department of the University of Strathclyde for scanning electron microscopy is gratefully acknowledged. This work was supported under the EPSRC projects EP/J021962/1, EP/I029141/1 and EP/K004670/1. HVD, HDS, EM and YG also gratefully acknowledge support from Singapore National Research Foundation under the project NRF-CRP-6-2010-02 and NRF-RF-2009-09. HVD also wishes to acknowledge ESF-EURYI and WBA-Turkish National Academy of Sciences.

References and links

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S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, “From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53μm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 3273–3281 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

V. M. Menon, M. Luberto, N. V. Valappil, and S. Chatterjee, “Lasing from InGaP quantum dots in a spin-coated flexible microcavity,” Opt. Express 16, 19535–19540 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, and A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011). [CrossRef]

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20.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000). [CrossRef]

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22.

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, and G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, and N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: October 31, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 7, 2014
Published: March 21, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
B. Guilhabert, C. Foucher, A-M. Haughey, E. Mutlugun, Y. Gao, J. Herrnsdorf, H.D. Sun, H.V. Demir, M.D. Dawson, and N. Laurand, "Nanosecond colloidal quantum dot lasers for sensing," Opt. Express 22, 7308-7319 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-7308


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References

  1. Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, V. I. Klimov, “From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53μm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 3273–3281 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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