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Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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March


Planar all-silicon metamaterial for THz application

  • Victor Dmitriev, Yeugenii Kuleshov, Sergey Prosvirnin, and Vyacheslav Khardikov
  • received 01/21/2015; accepted 03/31/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 233080
  • [full text: PDF (298) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and investigate a novel planar resonant all-silicon metamaterial. The metamaterial has a simple design. Unit cell of the periodic structure consists of silicon resonator in the form of right square prism. The prisms are connected between them by silicon bridges. The metamaterial exhibits sharp resonant reflection and transmission responses corresponding to excitation of two kinds of trapped mode regimes. These regimes are based on the first and the second magnetic dipole resonances of the unit cell.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
  • (160.1245) Materials : Artificially engineered materials
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Stable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with narrow linewidth utilizing parallel fiber ring resonator incorporating saturable absorber and fiber Bragg grating

  • Mingjiang Zhang, Lan Li, Yi Liu, Yunting Li, and Yun-cai Wang
  • received 02/09/2015; accepted 03/31/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 234177
  • [full text: PDF (3416) KB)]
  • Abstract: A stable, single frequency and narrow line-width ring erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The main ultra-narrow filter of the ring cavity EDFL is realized by an improved Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which is consisted of two parallel optical fiber ring resonators (FRRs). The FRRs share a saturable absorber (SA) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Attributed to the Vernier Effect,the single longitudinal mode (SLM) operation is successfully obtained. The output of the EDFL can present a good performance with a narrow linewidth of 1.09 kHz at 1549.57 nm and a high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 68 dB. Meanwhile, the laser has a relatively low threshold of 10.7 mW. In addition, the central wavelength variation and the power fluctuation of the laser are less than 0.002 nm and 0.2 dB respectively showing a favorable stability.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
  • (140.3500) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, erbium
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators

Evaluating the safe limit of large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals associated with transverse stimulated Raman scattering

  • Wei Han, Yong Xiang, Li Fuquan, Fang Wang, Lidan Zhou, Junpu Zhao, Feng Bin, Kuixing Zheng, Qihua Zhu, Xiaofeng Wei, wanguo Zheng, and Mali Gong
  • received 02/13/2015; accepted 03/30/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 234642
  • [full text: PDF (410) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a process to evaluate the safe limit of large-aperture DKDP crystals associated with transverse stimulated Raman scattering (TSRS) at the wavelength of 351 nm. The DKDP crystals safety can be assured by controlling the intensity of TSRS scattering light to the same order of that of the Rayleigh scattering light. We use an optical fiber sensor system to detect side scattering light in the DKDP and comparing the intensity between Raman and Rayleigh scattering light. By defining the threshold intensity as a condition in which the intensity ratio between transverse Raman scattering light and Rayleigh scattering light exceeds one, we obtain the threshold intensity of approximately 2.6 GW/cm2 in our experiment. This method enables us to determine the TSRS threshold directly instead of measuring TSRS gain coefficient and edge reflectivity of the crystals.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.5890) Nonlinear optics : Scattering, stimulated
  • (290.5910) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Raman

Bidirectional reflectance scale comparison between NIST and PTB

  • Catherine Cooksey, Maria Nadal, David Allen, Andreas Hope, and Kai-Olaf Hauer
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/30/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 233891
  • [full text: PDF (1507) KB)]
  • Abstract: Interlaboratory comparisons, referred to as key comparisons, are completed for many metrological units within the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). These comparisons are the responsibility of Consultative Committees (CC) of the different metrological areas. In the case of the CCPR (Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry), there are currently about 20 key comparisons for various measurands. While interest in the field of bidirectional reflectance has been growing in recent years among users in industry and research and development, there is currently no dedicated key comparison to demonstrate scale conformity. This is the basis of the comparison of the bidirectional reflectance scales between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Measurements of two distinct sets of white diffuse reflectance standards, two sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples and two matte ceramic samples were performed using the common and widely-used 0:45 geometry. The wavelength range of the comparison spans the ultraviolet (λ ≥ 330 nm) to the near infrared (λ ≤ 1150 nm), a technically important region. In total 5 different facilities participated in this bilateral investigation. The results of the comparison show good agreement within the combined uncertainties.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.1840) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Densitometers, reflectometers
  • (120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF

Vector Similarity Measure for Particle Size Analysis Based on Forward Light Scattering

  • 胡 彬, Jianqi Shen, and Tian Duan
  • received 12/22/2014; accepted 03/30/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 225711
  • [full text: PDF (2778) KB)]
  • Abstract: The set of linear equations in the inversion of particle size distribution (PSD) based on light diffraction is an ill-posed problem. To solve this problem, a technique based on the similarity measure between the measured vector and the column vectors of the matrix is studied and is tested by numerical simulations and experiments. An iterative method based on the vector similarity measurement (VSM) is proposed to predict the peaks of the PSD in steps. Simulations on the mono/bi-modal particle systems are discussed. It is found that the VSM technique can predict the PSD with a low sensitivity to the experimental errors.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements
  • (290.5890) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated
  • (290.2558) Scattering : Forward scattering

Comparative study on passive and active projector nonlinear gamma calibration

  • Song Zhang
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/29/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 232540
  • [full text: PDF (3846) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper presents our comparing study on active and passive projector nonlinear gamma compensation methods to reduce phase error. The {\em active method} modifies the fringe patterns before their projection to ensure sinusoidality after projection; and the {\em passive method}, in contrast, compensates for the phase error after capturing those distorted sinusoidal fringe patterns. Our study finds that the active method tends to provide more consistent high-quality fringe patterns regardless the amount of projector's defocusing; yet the effectiveness of a passive method is diminished if the measurement condition deviates from the calibration condition. Experimental results will be presented to demonstrate the differences of these two nonlinear gamma compensation methods.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement

Signature simulation of infrared target by tracing multiple areal sources

  • Xin Wu and Jianqi Zhang
  • received 01/23/2015; accepted 03/29/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 233151
  • [full text: PDF (1110) KB)]
  • Abstract: Abstract The traditional ray tracing approach for infrared target simulation takes into account the radiance emitted from the target itself in the scene, resulting in an incomplete infrared signature of a target. We here present an practical method to enable the identification of the signature by considering radiation exchanges among all sources in the scene. Any source would contribute radiance to a target of interest. Therefore, the radiance of a target received by an infrared imager includes both self emission and reflectance, where the reflectance is contributed due to radiation exchanges from other sources. Field experiments were performed to demonstrate our proposed method by comparisons of radiance profiles between our simulated images and the real scene images. It shows that our simulated images achieve a better match with the data than the ones generated by the traditional approach.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
  • (260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared
  • (350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering
  • (350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

Phase imaging using spiral phase diversity

  • Kedar Khare, Manoj Sharma, CHARU GAUR, and Paramasivam Senthilkumaran
  • received 01/09/2015; accepted 03/29/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 231494
  • [full text: PDF (3879) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate that the two-dimensional quadrature transform property of spiral phase filter may be utilized for addressing the non-interferometric iterative phase imaging problem. Two Fourier transform intensity measurements for an unknown input object are performed with and without a spiral phase mask in the aperture of a Fourier transforming lens. It is shown that the two intensity measurements along with the aperture support constraint can be used for estimating the phase of the unknown input object with an iterative algorithm. Numerical simulations are presented for comparison of the new spiral phase diversity technique and the more standard defocus diversity method. Experimental results for the spiral phase diversity are also shown to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for imaging of amplitude/phase objects.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing
  • (100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
  • (110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging

A Scalable Design for a High Energy Cryogenic Gas Cooled Diode Pumped Laser Amplifier

  • Paul Mason, Michael Fitton, Andrew Lintern, Saumyabrata Banerjee, Klaus Ertel, Tristan Davenne, John Hill, Steve Blake, Paul Phillips, Thomas Butcher, Jodie Smith, Mariastefania De Vido, Justin Greenhalgh, Cristina Hernandez-Gomez, and John Collier
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/28/2015; posted 03/31/2015; Doc. ID 233909
  • [full text: PDF (2442) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper we present details of a scalable design for a cryogenic helium gas cooled DPSSL amplifier based on a multi-slab Yb:YAG geometry, capable of efficient amplification of nanosecond pulses to kJ pulse energies at repetition rates of 10 Hz and beyond. A scaled-down prototype amplifier design capable of amplifying 10 ns pulses to 10 J at 10 Hz is presented derived from computational fluid dynamic calculations and thermal modelling. Model predictions have also been used to design a suitable cryogenic gas cooling system, details of which are also presented. Experimental testing has confirmed stable amplifier temperatures are achievable from room temperature down to 88 K, with a gas coolant temperature stability of ± 0.2 K. Single-pass transmission wave front measurements are in reasonable agreement with model predictions derived from thermal maps for two different YAG slab geometries. Slabs with a narrower width Cr-doped YAG absorptive cladding, added to suppress ASE, demonstrated a wave front error of ~0.2 waves at 1030 nm (peak-to-valley) over the 20 mm x 20 mm pumped region within the amplifier. The low level of optical distortion confirms that the amplifier design provides an acceptable level of temperature and flow uniformity and demonstrates the merit of a multi-slab geometry.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed
  • (140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

Zernike power spectra of clear and cloudy light-polluted urban night skies

  • Salvador Bara Vinas, Víctor Tilve, Miguel Nievas, Alejandro Sanchez de Miguel, and Jaime Zamorano
  • received 12/23/2014; accepted 03/28/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 231318
  • [full text: PDF (3290) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Zernike power spectra of the all-sky night brightness distributions of clear and cloudy nights are computed using a modal projection approach. The results obtained in the B, V and R Johnson-Cousins' photometric bands during a one-year campaign of observations at a light-polluted urban site show that these spectra can be described by simple power laws with exponents close to -3 for clear nights and -2 for cloudy ones. The second-moment matrices of the Zernike coefficients show relevant correlations between modes. The multiplicative role of the cloud cover, that contributes to a significant increase of the brightness of the urban night sky in comparison with the values obtained in clear nights, is described in the Zernike space.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.2960) Imaging systems : Image analysis

Aberration calibration in high NA spherical surfaces measurement on point diffraction interferometry

  • Yongying Yang, Xiaoyu Chen, Chen Wang, Dong Liu, Jian Bai, and Yibing Shen
  • received 01/28/2015; accepted 03/27/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 233276
  • [full text: PDF (2513) KB)]
  • Abstract: Systematic error in the point diffraction interferometer can significantly influence the measurement accuracy in the case that a high-numerical-aperture spherical surface is tested, in which wavefront aberrations could be observed and cannot be removed with the traditional calibration method. A calibration method, called symmetrical position aberration cancellation (SPAC) method, is proposed to remove the systematic error. With the SPAC method, the calibration needs two separate measurements with interferograms of opposite tilts and the systematic error can be reduced by averaging the test wavefronts of these two measurements. A geometrical optics model is presented for facilitating the calculation of the geometric aberrations that are introduced by the lateral deviation between the curvature center of the test surface and the center of the pinhole. Then a simulation model is built to analyze the influence of the lateral deviation and the numerical aperture of the surface under test on the systematic error. Both the computer simulation and experiments with PDI have been carried out to validate the proposed calibration method. In the final comparative experiment with ZYGO interferometer, the PDI exhibits high precision in high-numerical-aperture spherical surfaces measurement based on the proposed calibration method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (120.6650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, figure

Uncertainty in the bidirectional reflectance model for oceanic waters

  • Pengwang Zhai, Yongxiang Hu, Charles Trepte, David Winker, Patricia Lucker, Zhongping Lee, and Damien Josset
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/27/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 233902
  • [full text: PDF (522) KB)]
  • Abstract: We study the impacts of the bio-optical model variations on the angular distribution (f/Q factor) of the upwelling radiance field in ocean waters. An ocean water bio-optical model has been built and it is combined with a vector radiative transfer model to calculate the f/Q factors systematically. The f/Q factors are compared to those in [Morel, Antoine, and Gentili, Appl. Opt., 41, 6289, 2002] and the differences are found to be within ±10% for 81% of the total number of cases covering all wavelengths, Chlorophyll a concentrations, and solar and viewing geometries. The differences are attributed to the choice of ocean water scattering function and scattering coefficient biases. In addition, we study the uncertainty of f/Q factor due to three factors: I. the absorption of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); II. the particle scattering coefficient; III. the ocean water depolarization. The impacts of ocean water depolarization on the f/Q variation is found to be negligible. If we perturb the CDOM absorption by a factor ranging from 0.1 to 10, the f/Q values vary within ±5% of the average behavior of ocean waters for 93% of the cases. If we perturb the scattering coefficients by a factor ranging from 0.5 to 2.0, the f/Q variation is within ±5% for 81% of the cases studied. This study contributes to understand the uncertainty of ocean color remote sensing.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (010.4458) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic scattering
  • (010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer

One-step fabrication of annular microstructures based on improved femtosecond laser Bessel-Gaussian beam shaping

  • Ji'an Duan, Zhi LUO, Cong Wang, Xiaoyan Sun, Youwang Hu, and Kai Yin
  • received 02/12/2015; accepted 03/27/2015; posted 03/30/2015; Doc. ID 234121
  • [full text: PDF (2735) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this study, a favorable approach is proposed for the high-efficiency fabrication of annular microstructures by shaping femtosecond Gaussian laser into Bessel-Gaussian beam. An adjustable annular beam is generated by a combination of an axicon, a lens and an objective. Uniform annular microstructures are fabricated on the surface of fused silica in a single illumination step with only one pulse and without stage translation, the parameters of which are coincident with theoretical design. By adjusting the relative distance between the lens and objective, the diameters of the annular microstructures can be flexibly controlled in a wide range.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
  • (320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

A study on the feasibility of LED in the wound healing application

  • Xin Gu, Xiaoli Zhou, Xihong Bao, Shenglong Fan, Muqing Liu, and Lixin Wang
  • received 12/29/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 231133
  • [full text: PDF (1130) KB)]
  • Abstract: Poor wound healing is a common secondary complication for many diseases. Light therapy is a new way to improve wound healing. In this paper, a 630 nm and 830 nm LED was used to research the influence of low level light therapy on wound healing through cytological and animal experiments. In the cytological experiment, the cell viability and synthesis of hydroxyproline was measured. In the animal experiment, rats were given an artificial wound. Then, the effects of LED irradiation on wound healing were compared with control rats that did not receive the light therapy. The wound healing rate and collagen fiber formation was researched. The optimal parameter combination of wavelength, power and irradiation time was found. The effect of LED application on the wound healing was explored.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
  • (170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
  • (230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
  • (350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering

High-Speed Dual-Beam, Crossed Line-Scanning Fluorescence Microscope with a Point Confocal Resolution

  • HyunWoo Jeong, Hyung-Jin Kim, Jung Eun, Seungjin Heo, Mikyoung Lim, Yong-Hoon Cho, and Beop-Min Kim
  • received 01/08/2015; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 231800
  • [full text: PDF (567) KB)]
  • Abstract: Line-scanning microscopes are often used to overcome the limited scanning speed of conventional point-scanning confocal microscopes, at the cost, however, of spatial resolution. In this paper, present a dual-beam fluorescence line-scanning microscope that can restore the original confocal resolution. This microscope forms two orthogonal line foci in the object plane with perpendicular scanning directions, which create two line-scan images of the same area. From these images, the real noise and confocal characteristics are analyzed. Based on this information, we developed an image restoration algorithm to produce a final image with spatial resolution comparable to that of a conventional point-scanning confocal microscope. This algorithm was derived with the total variation regularization, and the critical image restoration factor for the algorithm was determined via an iterative process. Our results indicate that the intrinsic resolution limit of line-scanning microscopes can be overcome without subsequent deterioration in spatial resolution.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
  • (180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
  • (180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells

  • Tae-Hoon Yoon, Jae-Won Huh, Byeong-Hun Yu, and Joon Heo
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 232581
  • [full text: PDF (752) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a double-layered light shutter device using two cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) cells. The proposed light shutter consists of a light-scattering layer using long-pitch cholesteric LCs and a light-absorption layer using dye-doped ChLCs. The light shutter has four switchable states: light scattering, light absorption, absorption & scattering, and transparent. The light shutter in the absorption & scattering state can block the background image and provide a black color. By switching of the proposed light shutter positioned at the rear side of a transparent display, we can operate a transparent display in various modes, not just showing the images produced by a transparent display along with the background.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards II: color display

  • Yi-Chun Chen, Meng-Wei Lin, Ming-Wei Lee, and Erik Chang
  • received 11/07/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 226509
  • [full text: PDF (1132) KB)]
  • Abstract: The flicker glare and visual comfort of multicolor LED billboards are investigated in this study. The influences of two factors, flicker frequency and panel luminance, on visual discomfort and tiredness are examined. The results of ergonomic assessments show that visual comfort is affected by both the flicker frequency and luminance, but visual tiredness is not influenced by either factor. By curve fitting the experimental data, comfort rating models as functions of the flicker frequency and luminance are proposed. Furthermore, the ranges of proper operating conditions are suggested based on the predictions of the proposed models.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
  • (330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

Optical properties of edible oils within spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm determined by double optical pathlength transmission method

  • Lin Hua Liu, Xingcan Li, Junming Zhao, and Jianyu Tan
  • received 12/12/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 230596
  • [full text: PDF (7691) KB)]
  • Abstract: The optical properties of nine different samples of edible oils were experimentally determined by double optical pathlength transmission method (DOPTM) in the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm between 20 and 80 °C. The index of refraction exhibits little difference from the different types of edible oils. The index of absorption of all brands of studied edible oils decreased with the increasing temperature in the spectral range from 500 to 1100 nm. The variation of index of absorption was found to be insensitive to the increasing of temperature in the spectral range from 300 to 500 nm and from 1100 to 2500 nm. The absorption peaks locating at 900, 1210, 1400, 1750, 2150 and 2300 nm of the measured edible oils were corresponding to the result of overtones and combinations of C–H stretching vibration of various chemical groups. A difference of index of absorption was observed among the peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil in the spectral range from 300 to 500 nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
  • (300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
  • (300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
  • (300.6540) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultraviolet
  • (300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible

Polarization circulation effect in microbend-induced long-period fiber gratings for polarization-insensitive filter response

  • Hajime Sakata and Tomohiro Harada
  • received 01/21/2015; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 233017
  • [full text: PDF (547) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the reduction mechanism of polarization dependence in loss-peak wavelength for microbend-induced long-period fiber gratings (M-LPFGs) formed in twisted fibers. The analysis model consists of the stress-induced birefringence associated with the microbend as well as the optical activity induced by the twisted fiber. We verify the analysis model by measuring the change in the state of polarization (SOP) through the torsion M-LPFG. We reveal that the efficient circulation of the polarization components occurs in the torsion M-LPFG so that the polarization dependence of the loss-peak wavelengths is reduced. In the experiments, the M-LPFG is controlled by an electromagnet in the combination of a coil spring. The experimental results demonstrate a good agreement with the calculated expectation for the polarization-insensitive M-LPFGs.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (050.2555) Diffraction and gratings : Form birefringence
  • (230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

Packaged and robust microcavity device based on a microcylinder-taper coupling system

  • Yongchao Dong, Wang Wang, and Xueying Jin
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 234004
  • [full text: PDF (4888) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and realize a packaged structure for the microcylinder-taper coupling system by only gluing a glass tube and two glass plates together. Our package method avoids embedding the coupling system into the polymer, thus leaving the whispering gallery mode (WGM) evanescent fields available for environmental sensing. The excitation of localized high-order axial modes in the cylinder resonator fabricated by using a fusion splicer is demonstrated and a quality factor (Q) up to 1.4 × 107 is obtained. The Q maintenance and stable spectrum are realized by sealing the packaged device in a clean box. Moreover, the robustness of the packaged structure is also tested, demonstrating its remarkable anti-vibration ability. The portability and robustness of the device make it attractive in practical applications such as sensors, lasers, and especially some applied areas in strong vibration environments.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

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