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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

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Articles 1 to 20 of 35 Next Page >>

March


Reduced-order Spectral Data Modeling Based on Local Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

  • Woon Cho, Samir Sahyoun, Seddik Djouadi, Andreas Koschan, and Mongi Abidi
  • received 10/06/2014; accepted 03/05/2015; posted 03/05/2015; Doc. ID 224208
  • [full text: PDF (1242) KB)]
  • Abstract: Spectral imaging typically generates a large amount of high-dimensional data that are acquired in dierent sub-bands for each spatial location of interest. The high dimensionality of spectral data imposes limitations on numerical analysis. Therefore, there has been an emerging demand for robust data compression techniques, as specific post-processing techniques, which can cope with real spectral data. In this paper, we describe a reduced-order spectral data modeling (ROM) technique based on local proper orthogonal decomposition (LPOD), which can be used as an ecient procedure to compute low-dimensional models by projecting high- dimensional clusters onto subspaces spanned by local reduced-order bases (LROB). Experimental results are reported on three public domain databases and an in-house database recently built. Comparisons with three leading spectral recovery techniques, three decomposition techniques used for hyperspectral imaging, and two baseline techniques show that the proposed method leads to promising improvement on spectral and colorimetric accuracy corresponding to the reconstructed spectral re ectance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible
  • (330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
  • (330.1710) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, measurement
  • (330.1715) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, rendering and metamerism
  • (110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

Expansion of Difference-field Boundary Element Method for Numerical Analyses of Various Local Defects in Periodic Surface Relief Structures

  • Jun-ichiro Sugisaka, Takashi Yasui, and Koichi Hirayama
  • received 11/17/2014; accepted 03/04/2015; posted 03/04/2015; Doc. ID 226954
  • [full text: PDF (3081) KB)]
  • Abstract: We expand the difference-field boundary element method (DFBEM) to calculate wave scattering from a variety of local periodic structure defects. The DFBEM is a numerical method for simulating the diffraction caused by a periodic surface-relief structure with a defect. While it is more efficient than conventional techniques such as the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the original DFBEM is limited to projection defects. Here, we derive the integral equations and expressions for crack and buried-pillar defects, and also demonstrate some numerical analyses, validating the results by comparison with results from the FDTD method and the dielectric interface boundary conditions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods

Noise cancellation with phase-detection technique for pump-probe measurement and application to stimulated Raman imaging

  • Keisuke Seto, Toshiaki Tsukada, Yoshinao Okuda, Eiji Tokunaga, and Takayoshi Kobayashi
  • received 12/18/2014; accepted 03/04/2015; posted 03/04/2015; Doc. ID 226620
  • [full text: PDF (698) KB)]
  • Abstract: Intensity noise on a probe beam is a serious obstacle to highly sensitive and high-speed pump-probe microscopy. We report a noise-cancelling method for converting an intensity modulation on a probe beam by measuring a sample into a phase modulation of the beam. This phase modulation is observed independently on the intensity noise. We evaluate performance of the method using the super-continuum light from a piece of photonic crystal fiber, and find that the noise is cancelled by ~26 dB. We then apply the method to a stimulated Raman microscope. This method contributes to highly sensitive and high-speed pump-probe imaging with various light sources.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
  • (180.5655) Microscopy : Raman microscopy

Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials

  • Zhen Yu Yang, Hu Cao, Lin Wu, Ming Zhao, and Peng Zhang
  • received 09/04/2014; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/03/2015; Doc. ID 222448
  • [full text: PDF (874) KB)]
  • Abstract: Based on helical metamaterial (MM), a new broadband optical isolator with triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light (RCP) can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, will be converted into the left-handed circularly polarized light (LCP) which will be suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages, it has broad frequency ranges and compact structure, moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic field is required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.3240) Optical devices : Isolators
  • (160.1585) Materials : Chiral media
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (130.5440) Integrated optics : Polarization-selective devices

Compact interferometer transducer based on surface plasmon phase resonance

  • yassine hadjar, Mikael renault, Sylvain Blaize, aurelien Bruyant, Rémi Vincent, and abdelhamid hmima
  • received 10/07/2014; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/03/2015; Doc. ID 223893
  • [full text: PDF (1042) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a new monolithic interferometric configuration and implement a novel method for spectroscopic phase shift detection of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. The interference pattern is obtained using a non-polarizing beam splitter cube with two attached right angle prisms in such a way that each interference field undergoes two total internal reflections (TIR) at prisms/air interface and one attenuated total reflection (ATR) through surface plasmon interaction. The evanescent part of the interferogram around the Zero optical path difference (ZOPD) is sampled and detected in far field thanks to a bidimensional array of scattering optical nearfield probes deposited on the corresponding prism surface. A Fourier transform of the sampled interferogram is performed to measure the input light wavelength while a direct comparison of the interferogram in TM and TE polarization modes allow us to determine the differential phase shift induced by the SPR layer. The phase shift measurement is made possible thanks to a remarkable time stability of the interferogram in the glass bulk. By tuning the input laser wavelength around the resonance, we show a good agreement between experiment and theoretical calculations for both amplitude and phase spectral responses

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments
  • (300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
  • (180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Dyakonov hybrid surface waves at the isotropic-biaxial media interface

  • E. Cojocaru
  • received 11/24/2014; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/03/2015; Doc. ID 226308
  • [full text: PDF (399) KB)]
  • Abstract: Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs) at the isotropic-biaxial media interface are considered in the case when two principal axes of the biaxial medium lie in the plane of the interface, both x-cut and y-cut biaxial crystals being considered. Nonmagnetic and nonabsorbing media, with positive values of the relative permittivities are assumed. An analytical expression for the DSW dispersion relation at the isotropic-biaxial interface is given. Also, the limit angles at which the DSWs can propagate and the Poynting vector components of the DSWs are expressed analytically. Numerical examples are given showing that DSWs can exist not only for positive biaxial media, different other cases being identified.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Electrically variable liquid crystal lens based on the dielectric dividing principle

  • Tigran Galstian, Victor Reshetnyak, Alex Sova, and Karen Asatryan
  • received 12/22/2014; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/03/2015; Doc. ID 231245
  • [full text: PDF (914) KB)]
  • Abstract: Theoretical modeling is performed for a liquid crystal (LC) lens that uses a combination of two dielectric lenses and voltage dividing principle to shape the electric field in the space. Electric field, LC reorientation and optical phase retardation profiles are obtained by numerical simulations. The obtained results are compared with experimental ones and very good agreement is obtained validating the proposed model that uses limited number of dielectric and geometrical control parameters for this type of lens.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.6800) General : Theoretical physics
  • (250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Experimental investigation of circular Bragg phenomenon for oblique incidence

  • Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Greg Barber, and Sema Erten
  • received 01/09/2015; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/03/2015; Doc. ID 232257
  • [full text: PDF (1326) KB)]
  • Abstract: A 20-period-thick chiral sculptured thin film (STF) of zinc selenide was fabricated on a glass slide by thermal evaporation. A variable-angle spectroscopic system was devised and used to measure all eight of the circular remittances of the chiral STF as functions of the angle of incidence and the free-space wavelength. Thereby, the center wavelength and the bandwidth of the circular Bragg phenomenon (CBP) exhibited by structurally chiral materials such as cholesteric liquid crystals (LCs) and chiral STFs were comprehensively characterized for incidence angles in the range [0 deg, 70 deg]. The experimental data were qualitatively compared with data calculated using a helicoidal model for the relative permittivity dyadic of the chiral STF and assuming that all three eigenvalues of that dyadic obey the single-resonance Lorentz model. The chosen representation was found adequate to represent the blue shift of the center-wavelength with increasing angle of incidence, but the Lorentz model requires modification to develop improved predictive capabilities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

February


Experimental demonstration of a secondary source of partially polarized states

  • Francisco De Zela, Diego Barberena, and Giancarlo Gatti
  • received 11/10/2014; accepted 02/22/2015; posted 02/23/2015; Doc. ID 226689
  • [full text: PDF (1284) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a simple device that works as a secondary source of light with prescribed polarization properties. The device has great versatility, allowing complete control over both the degree of polarization and the Stokes vector that belongs to the fully polarized component of partially polarized light beams. We report experimental results that illustrate the device's versatility by showing how polarized states can be moved within the Poincaré ball along spiraling paths.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5410) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Polarimetry
  • (230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices

Statistical similarity and complete coherence of electromagnetic fields in time and frequency domains

  • Timo Voipio, Tero Setala, and Ari Tapio Friberg
  • received 12/23/2014; accepted 02/22/2015; posted 02/23/2015; Doc. ID 231299
  • [full text: PDF (523) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the statistical similarity of partially polarized, partially coherent electromagnetic fields in time and frequency domains, and the relationship between statistical similarity and complete coherence. We find that both in time domain and in frequency domain the complete coherence of two fields is equivalent to the fields being both fully polarized and statistically similar. Unlike in scalar coherence theory, statistical similarity alone is found not to constitute a sufficient condition for complete coherence. We derive the conditions under which spectrally completely coherent fields are also temporally fully coherent, and we point out that temporally completely coherent fields are necessarily fully spectrally coherent at all frequencies. Complete temporal and spectral coherence of electromagnetic fields are found to be related to the recently introduced concept of strict cross-spectral purity, but in contrast to the scalar case, strict cross-spectral purity is not a necessary condition for complete temporal coherence if the fields have different spectral polarization states.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Interpretation of azimuthal angle dependence of periodic gratings in Mueller Matrix Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

  • Anett Heinrich, Joerg Bischoff, Uwe Richter, Kurt Meiner, Thomas Mikolajick, and Ingo Dirnstorfer
  • received 12/12/2014; accepted 02/19/2015; posted 02/20/2015; Doc. ID 229470
  • [full text: PDF (943) KB)]
  • Abstract: Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry becomes increasingly important for determining structural parameters of periodic line gratings. Due to the anisotropic character of gratings, the measured Mueller matrix elements are highly azimuthal angle dependent. Measurement results are interpreted by basic principles of diffraction on gratings. The spectral and azimuthal angle dependent intensity changes are correlated to so called Rayleigh singularities, i.e. wavelengths, where the number of diffraction orders changes. The positions of the Rayleigh singularities are calculated analytically and overlapped with measured spectra of two different types of photomasks with transparent and reflecting substrates, respectively. For both types of gratings, the Rayleigh singularities reproduce the contours of the spectra. Increasing grating periods result in a shift of these contours to longer wavelengths. Characteristic differences between the two photomasks are explained by the influence of the transmission orders, which are determined by the substrate transparency.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (260.2130) Physical optics : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
  • (290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh
  • (300.3700) Spectroscopy : Linewidth
  • (300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible

A Method of Field Expansions for Vector Electromagnetic Scattering by Layered Periodic Crossed Gratings

  • David Nicholls
  • received 12/23/2014; accepted 02/19/2015; posted 02/20/2015; Doc. ID 231273
  • [full text: PDF (1725) KB)]
  • Abstract: In many applications of scientific and engineering interest the accurate modeling of scattering of linear waves by periodic layered media plays a crucial role. From geophysics and oceanography to materials science and imaging, the ability to simulate such configurations numerically in a rapid and robust fashion is of paramount importance. In this contribution we focus upon the specific problem of vector electromagnetic radiation interacting with a multiply layered periodic crossed diffraction grating. While all of the classical methods for the numerical simulation of partial differential equations have been brought to bear upon this problem, we argue here that in this particular context a High--Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) approach is superior. In particular, we describe how the Method of Field Expansions (FE) can be extended to the fully vectorial and three dimensional scattering problem in the presence of multiple layers. With specific numerical experiments we will show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and high--order accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods

Poynting vector profile of a tightly focused radially polarized beam in the presence of primary aberrations

  • Bosanta Boruah and Mohd Gaffar
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 02/19/2015; posted 02/20/2015; Doc. ID 231817
  • [full text: PDF (5239) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Poynting vector profile of a tightly focused radially polarized beam has some unique and interesting properties. For instance the light on the optical axis in the focal volume corresponds to a null Poynting vector indicating the light there to be non-propagating. However the beam here is considered to be an unaberrated one. Thus it will be important to know whether the commonly occurring monochromatic aberrations can have any effect on the ideal Poynting vector profile of a radially polarized beam. In this paper we make use of Fourier transform form of the vectorial diffraction theory to investigate the effect of primary aberrations on the Poynting vector profile of a radially polarized beam under tight focusing condition. We present here the results from our study on the behaviour of both the time averaged and time dependent Poynting vector profiles in the focal volume.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Uniform asymptotics of paraxial boundary diffraction waves

  • Riccardo Borghi
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 02/19/2015; posted 02/19/2015; Doc. ID 229076
  • [full text: PDF (1945) KB)]
  • Abstract: Starting from the paraxial formulation of the boundary-diffracted-wave theory proposed by Hannay [J. Hannay, J. Mod. Opt. \textbf{47,} 121-124 (2000)] and on exploiting its intrinsic geometrical character, we re-discover some classical results of Fresnel diffraction theory, valid for ``large' hard-edge apertures, within a somewhat unorthodox perspective. In this way a geometrical interpretation of the Schwarzschild's uniform asymptotics of the paraxially diffracted wavefield by circular apertures [K. Schwarzschild, Sitzb. M\"unchen Akad. Wiss. Math.-Phys. Kl. \textbf{28,} 271 - 294 (1898)] is given and later generalized to deal with arbitrarily shaped apertures with smooth boundaries. A quantitative exploration is then carried out, with the language of catastrophe optics, about the diffraction patterns produced, within the geometrical shadow, by opaque elliptic disks under plane wave illumination. In particular, the role of the ellipse's evolute as geometrical caustic of the diffraction pattern is emphasized through an intuitive interpretation of the underlying saddle coalescing mechanism, obtained by suitably visualizing the saddle topology changes induced by letting the observation point to move along the ellipse's major axis.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3870) General : Mathematics
  • (070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory

Generic Propagation of Beams with Sharp Spatial Boundaries

  • Eitam Luz, Er'el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Tamar Ben Yaakov, and Shaul Leiman
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 02/19/2015; posted 02/20/2015; Doc. ID 228627
  • [full text: PDF (594) KB)]
  • Abstract: The propagation of spatial beams with initially sharp transverse boundaries is investigated theoretically with the paraxial wave equation (analytically and numerically) and experimentally. The sharp boundaries generate a universal pattern, which is a consequence of the Schrödinger-like nature of the paraxial dynamics. As a consequence, an approximate analytical expression can be derived for the longitudinal propagation dynamics of the beam. We show that the derived analytical expression is not only a good approximation for the solution of the paraxial approximation wave equation, but it is also a good approximation for the solution of the full electromagnetic wave equation as well. Good agreement between the analytical expression and experiment results is presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
  • (110.1220) Imaging systems : Apertures
  • (200.0200) Optics in computing : Optics in computing
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Perturbative analysis of partially coherent illumination for coma aberration measurements

  • Satoshi Yashiki
  • received 12/16/2014; accepted 02/18/2015; posted 02/20/2015; Doc. ID 229343
  • [full text: PDF (388) KB)]
  • Abstract: The theory of coma aberration measurement for aerial image sidelobe peaks is extended from coherent illumination to partial illumination. We prove that the coma aberration linearity of the intensity difference between the two peaks is satisfied even in the partially coherent case. Using weak diffraction approximation, we analytically reveal the coherence dependency of the aberration measurement sensitivity for a single line in a bright field. We confirm that our derived formulas are well matched with numerical lithography simulation results. These results provide guidelines for the measurement condition; higher aberration sensitivity is available under the higher coherence of the illumination pupil.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
  • (110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
  • (110.4980) Imaging systems : Partial coherence in imaging
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Derivatives of Optical Path Length: from Mathematical Formulation to Applications

  • Psang Dain Lin
  • received 12/30/2014; accepted 02/17/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 231551
  • [full text: PDF (1372) KB)]
  • Abstract: The optical path length (OPL) of an optical system is a highly important parameter since it determines the phase of the light passing through the system and governs the interference and diffraction of the rays as they propagate. The Jacobian and Hessian matrices of the OPL are of fundamental importance in tuning the performance of a system. However, the OPL varies as a recursive function of the incoming ray and the boundary variable vector, and hence computing the Jacobian and Hessian matrices is extremely challenging. In an earlier study by the present group, this problem was addressed by deriving the Jacobian matrix of the OPL with respect to all of the independent system variables of a non-axially symmetrical system. In the present study, the proposed method is extended to the Hessian matrix of a non-axially symmetrical optical system. The proposed method facilitates the cross-sensitivity analysis of the OPL with respect to arbitrary system variables and provides an ideal basis for automatic optical system design applications in which the merit function is defined in terms of wavefront aberrations. An illustrative example is given. It is shown that the proposed method requires fewer iterations than that based on the Jacobian matrix and yields a more reliable and precise optimization performance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
  • (080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
  • (080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
  • (080.1753) Geometric optics : Computation methods

An Analytical Expression for the Average Ensquared Energy

  • Jonathan Nichols and Christopher Miller
  • received 11/20/2014; accepted 02/17/2015; posted 02/19/2015; Doc. ID 227227
  • [full text: PDF (639) KB)]
  • Abstract: We derive an expression for the average area of intersection between a blur spot of radius R and a square pixel where the center of the blur is uniformly chosen from the pixel interior. Implications of the result are then discussed in the context of a point source detection problem.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
  • (110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
  • (220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design

Vertical mode expansion method for analyzing elliptic cylindrical objects in a layered background

  • Ya Yan Lu and Hualiang Shi
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 02/16/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 228994
  • [full text: PDF (553) KB)]
  • Abstract: The vertical mode expansion method (VMEM) (X. Lu et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 293-300, 2014) is a frequency-domain numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations in structures that are layered in a cylindrical region and its exterior. Based on expanding the electromagnetic field in one-dimensional vertical modes, VMEM reduces the original three-dimensional problem to a two-dimensional (2D) problem on the vertical boundary of the cylindrical region. However, VMEM has so-far only been implemented for structures with circular cylindrical regions. In this paper, we develop a VMEM for structures with an elliptic cylindrical region, based on separation of variables in the elliptic coordinates. A key step in VMEM is to calculate the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) maps for 2D Helmholtz equations inside or outside the ellipse. For numerical stability reasons, we avoid the analytic solutions of the Helmholtz equations in terms of the angular and radial Mathieu functions, and construct the DtN maps by a fully numerical method. To illustrate the new VMEM, we analyze the transmission of light through an elliptic aperture in a metallic film, and the scattering of light by elliptic gold cylinders on a substrate.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Intensity fluctuations of multimode laser beams in underwater medium

  • Yahya Baykal
  • received 11/17/2014; accepted 02/15/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 226959
  • [full text: PDF (397) KB)]
  • Abstract: In an oceanic optical communications link, the received intensity fluctuations, quantified by the scintillation index are formulated and evaluated when a multimode laser is used. The variations of the scintillation index versus the oceanic turbulence parameters are examined for different multimode laser structures. Oceanic turbulence parameters used are the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, the Kolmogorov inner scale and the parameter w that defines the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum. The results in this paper can be used to improve the performance in the design of oceanic optical communications links.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission
  • (010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
  • (290.5930) Scattering : Scintillation

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