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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B



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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Surface plasmon resonance mediated fringe modulation using a birefringent lens creating radial shearing environment

  • Mahua Bera, Mina Ray, and Jayeta Banerjee
  • received 10/22/2014; accepted 03/21/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225387
  • [full text: PDF (2927) KB)]
  • Abstract: A cost-effective simple technique to observe and analyze the surface plasmon resonance modulated radially sheared interference images using a birefringent lens is reported. Theoretical and experimental investigations have been presented for metallic thickness optimization, angle selection depending on the numerical aperture of birefringent lens together with real and complex plane analysis of resonance parameters for better understanding of experimental results. Simultaneous observation of p- and s- polarizations using Wollaston prism also supports the modulation due to coupling of surface plasmons with p-polarization whereas the unperturbed s-polarization can be used as reference. Moreover, we have also utilized this technique as the refractive index sensor for the analyte in contact with the plasmon generating metallic film.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation of disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA thin films.

  • Benjamin Anderson, Mark Kuzyk, and Sheng-Ting Hung
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/18/2015; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 231934
  • [full text: PDF (1139) KB)]
  • Abstract: Using transmittance imaging microscopy we measure the wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). The reversible and irreversible inverse quantum efficiencies (IQEs) are found to be constant over the spectral region investigated, with the average reversible IQE being $\overline{B}_\alpha= 8.70 (\pm 0.38)\times 10^5$ and the average irreversible IQE being $\overline{B}_\epsilon= 1.396 (\pm 0.031)\times 10^8$. The large difference between the IQEs is consistent with the hypothesis that the irreversible species involves a dye-polymer complex. Additionally, we find that the recovery rate is independent of wavelength with a value of $\overline{\beta}=3.88(\pm 0.47) \times 10^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$. These results are consistent with the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

Phase retrieval via regularization in self-diffraction based spectral interferometry

  • Simon Birkholz, Gunter Steinmeyer, Bernd Hofmann, Daniel Gerth, Steven Bürger, and Sebastian Koke
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/18/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 229469
  • [full text: PDF (947) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel variant of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. Other than most previously demonstrated variants of SPIDER, our method is based on a third-order nonlinear optical effect, namely self-diffraction, rather than the second-order effect of sum-frequency generation. On one hand, self-diffraction (SD) substantially simplifies phase-matching capabilities for multi-octave spectra that cannot be hosted by second-order processes, given manufacturing limitations of crystal lengths in the few-micrometer range. On the other hand, however, SD SPIDER imposes an additional constraint as it effectively measures the spectral phase of a self-convolved spectrum rather than immediately measuring the fundamental phase. Reconstruction of the latter from the measured phase and the spectral amplitude of the fundamental turns out to be an ill-posed problem, which we address by a regularization approach. We discuss the numerical implementation in detail and apply it to measured data from a Ti:sapphire amplifier system. Our experimental demonstration used 40-fs pulses and a 500 µm thick BaF2 crystal to show that the SD SPIDER signal is sufficiently strong to be separable from stray light. Extrapolating these measurements to the thinnest conceivable nonlinear media, we predict that bandwidths well above two optical octaves can be measured by a suitably adapted SD SPIDER apparatus, enabling the direct characterization of pulses down to single-femtosecond pulse durations. Such characteristics appear out of range for any currently established pulse measurement technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

On and off optical resonance dynamics of dielectric micro-cylinders under plane wave illumination

  • Ibrahim Mahariq and Hamza Kurt
  • received 01/28/2015; accepted 03/17/2015; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 233418
  • [full text: PDF (815) KB)]
  • Abstract: We explore the on resonance and off resonance optical response of dielectric cylinders excited by normal incident plane waves. Both analytical method based on Mie theory and numerical method implemented with spectral element method are undertaken in the study. We demonstrate that whispering gallery mode characteristic of resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the refractive index and radius changes. Detuning of the either parameter deteriorates the resonance action and creates yet another exciting phenomenon known as photonic nano-jets. Sub-wavelength light focusing property can be associated with nano-jets and engineering the parameters yield strong field confinement and slowly diffracting beam propagation. The current work investigates the optical properties of the dielectric micro-cylinders at the close proximity of the resonance condition. Both strong field focusing associated with photonic nano-jet and enhanced field localization linked with the resonance condition are desired for photon manipulation scenarios in nano-photonics.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

Even- and odd-order dispersion cancellation effects in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  • Jing Qiu, Jian-Song Pan, Guoyong Xiang, Yong-Sheng Zhang, Shensheng Han, and You-Zhen Gui
  • received 01/20/2015; accepted 03/16/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232909
  • [full text: PDF (1349) KB)]
  • Abstract: Dispersion cancellation effects have attracted much attention in both classical and quantum worlds. In this paper, we show that by implementing a delicate design in a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer, we can observe the cancellation of even- and odd-order dispersion by twisting the polarizers placed in front of two single-photon detectors. This polarization post-selection scheme demonstrates that the classical and quantum interferogram can be obtained in different cases in a single MZ interferometer.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

Nanofocusing in the graphene-coated tapered nanowire infrared probe

  • Bofeng Zhu, Guobin Ren, Yixiao Gao, Yang Yang, Beilei Wu, Yudong Lian, and Shuisheng Jian
  • received 10/29/2014; accepted 03/13/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225950
  • [full text: PDF (757) KB)]
  • Abstract: We conduct analytical and numerical investigations of graphene-coated tapered nanowire probe and to determine the optimal conditions and structural parameters for achieving maximal possible local field enhancement at the probe tip. Based on the adiabatic approximation, analytic methods are adopted in the investigation of modal performances and field enhancement of the probe, showing well consistence with the rigorous numerical simulations up to the taper angle near 24°. Both the adiabatic theory and numerical simulation have shown that the existence of optimal conditions and structural parameters. The dependencies of tip field enhancement as well as the optimal structure parameters on geometric parameters, chemical potential, nanowire permittivity and tip radius have been intensively investigated with the electric field amplitude can be enhanced as high as 24 times. The proposed probe and the corresponding discussion may have promising applications for single molecule detection, measurement and nano-manipulation technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Anomalous optical bistability and robust entanglement of mechanical oscillators using two-photon coherence

  • Eyob Sete and Hichem Eleuch
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/12/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232449
  • [full text: PDF (2641) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the optical bistability and the entanglement of two movable mirrors coupled to a two-mode laser in a doubly-resonant cavity. We show that in stark contrast to the usual red-detuned condition to observe bistability in single-mode optomechanics, the optical intensities exhibit bistability for all values of cavity-laser detuning due to intermode coupling induced by the two-photon atomic coherence. Interestingly, an unconventional bistability with ``ribbon-shaped' hysteresis can be observed for certain range of cavity-laser detuning. We also demonstrate that the atomic coherence leads to a strong entanglement between the movable mirrors in the adiabatic regime. Surprisingly, the mirror-mirror entanglement is shown to persist for environment temperatures of the phonon bath up to $12~\text{K}$ using experimental parameters.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (200.4880) Optics in computing : Optomechanics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.3100) Quantum optics : Instabilities and chaos
  • (270.3430) Quantum optics : Laser theory

A compact high flux cold Cesium beam source based on a modified two-dimensional Magneto-optical trap

  • Lu Qi, jian fang, wei quan, Zhaohui Hu, Hairong Li, Yuchi Zhang, and Tongyu Wang
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/09/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 231368
  • [full text: PDF (1067) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a realization of a compact cold Cesium beam source based on a two-dimensional plus magneto-optical trap with a hollow retarding light. Loss of atom beam at the entrance of the pumping hole of the differential tube, which was neglected in previous similar configurations, is minimized in our configuration due to the modification, resulting in a higher pass efficiency for cold atoms. An atom beam flux up to atoms/s is observed with shorter transverse cooling length, which agrees with the numerical simulation qualitatively. The compact volume and high laser efficiency makes it an ideal beam source for practical use.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (020.3320) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser cooling

On the influence of the pump shape on the modulation instability process induced in a dispersion oscillating fiber.

  • Christophe Finot and Stefan Wabnitz
  • received 01/19/2015; accepted 03/09/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 232822
  • [full text: PDF (1624) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show that taking into account the temporal intensity profile of a pulsed pump beam may lead to significant deviations from the predictions based on a continuous wave analysis of the modulation instability process occurring in a dispersion oscillating fiber operating under the conditions that lead to gain sideband splitting. Potential application to a pulse doubling scheme with tunable delay is discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

A burst-mode Yb-doped fiber amplifier system optimized for low-repetition-rate operation

  • Hamit Kalaycioglu, F Omer Ilday, SEYDI YAVAS, Onder Akcaalan, and burak eldeniz
  • received 01/28/2015; accepted 03/08/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 233356
  • [full text: PDF (731) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on burst-mode operation of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped multi-stage all-fiber amplifier capable of generating 10-pulse 100 ns-long bursts of 400 µJ total energy. The corresponding average energy per pulse is 40 µJ, with a standard deviation of 16%. The 40 µJ pulses are compressible to a full width half maximum of 500 fs. The burst repetition rate is set to 1 kHz and the amplifier is synchronously pulse-pumped to minimize amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) between the bursts. Special amplifier design has been developed to suppress ASE further at the cost of lower power efficiency. A detailed investigation of gain and ASE suppression performance of the amplifier in relation to pulsed pumping is presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
  • (320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

Rotational cavity optomechanics

  • Mishkatul Bhattacharya
  • received 01/05/2015; accepted 03/05/2015; posted 03/06/2015; Doc. ID 231753
  • [full text: PDF (354) KB)]
  • Abstract: We theoretically examine the optomechanical interaction between a rotating nanoparticle and an orbital angular momentum-carrying optical cavity mode. Specifically, we consider a dielectric nanosphere rotating uniformly in a ring-shaped optical potential inside a Fabry-Perot resonator. The motion of the particle is probed by a weak angular lattice, created by introducing two additional degenerate Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes carrying equal and opposite orbital angular momenta. We demonstrate that the rotation frequency of the nanoparticle is imprinted on the probe optical mode, via the Doppler shift, and thus may be sensed experimentally using homodyne detection. We show analytically that the effect of the optical probe on the particle rotation vanishes in the regime of linear response, resulting in an accurate frequency measurement. We also numerically characterize the degradation of the measurement accuracy when the system is driven in the nonlinear regime. Our results should be relevant to studies of rotational Doppler velocimetry and rotational Brownian motion in a periodic lattice.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (280.3340) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser Doppler velocimetry
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics
  • (120.4880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optomechanics

Efficient excitation and control of arbitrary surface plasmon polariton beams using one-dimensional metallic gratings

  • Jacob Scheuer, Ady Arie, Doron Bar-Lev, and Itai Epstein
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 03/03/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 228827
  • [full text: PDF (1077) KB)]
  • Abstract: We develop a general approach for efficient excitation and control of arbitrarily shaped surface plasmon polariton waves using one-dimensional metallic grating by proper manipulation of the exciting free-space beam. We present a complete and rigorous theory that relates the electromagnetic fields of the free-space beam impinging upon the grating to the resulting surface plasmon. Following, we deduce an optimal grating and efficient polarization schemes which facilitates the excitation of surface plasmons propagating at angles up to almost 90 degrees with respect to the grating’s axis with negligible polarization losses. The theoretical predictions are verified both numerically and experimentally by exciting two-dimensional surface plasmons through one dimensional metallic gratings. We show that this method can be readily applied for generating arbitrary plasmonic wave-fronts and the general design formalism is given. Finally, we show how the developed design rules can be applied for the excitation of optically controlled surface plasmon hotspots.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
  • (230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

Reliable multiple pulse reconstruction from second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating spectrograms

  • Fedor Mitschke, Alexander Hause, Philipp Rohrmann, and Sven Kraft
  • received 11/05/2014; accepted 03/02/2015; posted 03/05/2015; Doc. ID 226231
  • [full text: PDF (1452) KB)]
  • Abstract: Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) has become an established method to assess the amplitude-and-phase profiles of ultrashort laser pulses. Second harmonic generation (SHG) FROG is the most widely used version because it is relatively simple to set up and operate. However, for some complex pulse shapes it tends to produce false results. Here we discuss the reconstruction of multiple pulse structures, a situation in which SHG FROG frequently fails. We suggest a modification of the standard procedure and demonstrate that the rate of false results is significantly reduced. We also discuss reconstruction in the presence of noise. A procedure to obtain error bars is given; they allow to gauge the quality of the reconstruction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics
  • (320.7100) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast measurements


Effects of Deep-Subwavelength Surface Roughness on Fields of Plasmonic Thin Film Based on Lippmann-Schwinger Equation in the Spectral Domain

  • Leung Tsang, Nicholaos Limberopoulos, Kung-Hau Ding, Xudong Li, Philippe Duvelle, Jarrett Vella, Christie Devlin, and John Goldsmith
  • received 09/17/2014; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/24/2015; Doc. ID 222770
  • [full text: PDF (1691) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, we consider a line source over a plasmonic thin film with surface roughness. Using layered medium Green’s functions, we derive the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the spectral domain with scattering potentials. Because of deep-subwavelength surface roughness, the scattering potentials are next approximated by the small height approximation so that the solutions of fields in the spectral domain can be computed readily. Numerical results are illustrated for the surface fields on the rough surface and the fields in the image plane. For periodic roughness, small periods, on the order of 0.1λ, and small heights, on the order of 0.01λ, are used. For the case of random roughness, we choose the correlation length to be much smaller than a wavelength, on the order of 0.1λ, and height on the order of 0.01λ. The results of the fields on the rough surface in the spectral domain show that subwavelength roughness creates fields with wave vector components that are many times larger than the free space wavenumber ( 10k or larger ). In the spatial domain, the imaging is enhanced by the deep-subwavelength roughness. Results of the small roughness approximation are in good agreement with that of exact potential and that of the method of moments (MoM).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.0310) Optics at surfaces : Thin films
  • (240.5770) Optics at surfaces : Roughness
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Focus Issue Introduction: Optical Cooling and Trapping

  • Antonio Neves
  • received 04/01/2015; accepted ; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 237416
  • [full text: PDF (349) KB)]
  • Abstract: The year 2015 is an auspicious year for optical science, as it is being celebrated as the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. This Focus Issue of the journals Optics Express and Journal of the Optical Society of America B has been organized by the OSA Technical Group on Optical Cooling and Trapping to mark this occasion, and to highlight the most recent and exciting developments in the topics covered by the Group. Together this joint Focus Issue features 32 papers, including both experimental and theoretical works, which span this wide range of activities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3320) Lasers and laser optics : Laser cooling
  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (020.1475) Atomic and molecular physics : Bose-Einstein condensates
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

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