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  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 38, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 2013
  • pp: 299–301
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Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser

Nikolai Tolstik, Evgeni Sorokin, and Irina T. Sorokina  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 3, pp. 299-301 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.000299


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Abstract

We report the soft-aperture Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser, generating 550 mW of 69 fs nearly transform-limited pulses at 2.39 μm wavelength. The pulse energy reached 3.8 nJ at 145 MHz repetition rate, limited by the onset of double-pulsing. This corresponds to the shortest-pulse and highest-energy direct femtosecond laser source in the mid-infrared. Dispersion compensation was achieved by a single chirped mirror and a thin sapphire plate, making the laser design simple, compact and very stable, and operating at ambient air and room temperature. The superb thermal and mechanical properties of Cr:ZnS, exceeding those of Cr:ZnSe and many established femtosecond laser crystals, should allow for further scaling of output power.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Femtosecond coherent light sources emitting in the “molecular fingerprint” mid-infrared (mid-IR) (2–3 μm) spectral range are of great interest for a number of applications. First, area of interest is in environmental sensing, but also of interest in medicine, telecommunications, material processing, and metrology [1

1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

]. Such sources are mostly built on the basis of nonlinear optical conversion techniques, either optical parametric oscillator (OPO) or difference frequency generation, resulting in limited efficiency as well as high complexity and price of the system. The compact and cost-effective alternatives to the OPOs are the mode-locked crystalline solid-state lasers based on Cr2+-doped chalcogenides [2

2. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996). [CrossRef]

4

4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, M. S. Mirov, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 898 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Due to their broad gain and continuous tunability over a wide wavelength range (1400nm [5

5. E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

]), exceeding all known laser types, as well as high power (over 13 W in continuous wave (CW) regime [4

4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, M. S. Mirov, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 898 (2011). [CrossRef]

]), they are perfectly suitable for high power femtosecond pulse generation [6

6. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

10

10. E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

]. Today’s most developed crystal for solid-state femtosecond mid-IR lasers is Cr2+:ZnSe. The passively mode-locked femtosecond Cr2+:ZnSe laser was first reported in 2006 [6

6. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

] and the first Kerr-lens mode (KLM)-locked laser in 2009 [7

7. E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

,8

8. M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. To date, output power up to 300 mW [7

7. E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

], pulse energy up to 2.3 nJ [10

10. E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

], pulse duration as short as 80 fs [1

1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

,11

11. I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

], and parametric frequency conversion to the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength range [12

12. K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011). [CrossRef]

] have been demonstrated in the femtosecond regime.

The only disadvantage of the Cr2+:ZnSe crystal is its comparatively high thermal lensing parameter (70·1061/K [2

2. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996). [CrossRef]

]), which potentially limits the power scalability. From this point of view a single crystalline Cr2+:ZnS is a promising alternative. Together with the lower dn/dT (46·1061/K) it exhibits higher thermal conductivity (27W/m·K) and thermal shock parameter (7.1W/m1/2) [13

13. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002). [CrossRef]

] resulting in potentially better power handling capability. From the spectroscopic point of view both crystals are in many respects similar with the main difference of a 100 nm blue-shifted emission peak of Cr:ZnS. The first CW Cr:ZnS laser has been reported in 2002 in [13

13. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and the diode-pumped version of it in [14

14. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The main reason of under investigation of the single crystal Cr:ZnS is the lack of its commercial availability. The formally cubic Cr:ZnS modification is a polytypical compound and can coexist in several structure types, thus exhibiting natural birefringence [13

13. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, subject to a proper orientation, the CW output power of 700 mW at 2.35 μm with 700 nm wavelength tuning were demonstrated using Cr:ZnS single crystal as a laser active element [14

14. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Subsequently, the laser action in microchip configuration [15

15. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. Moskalev, V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002). [CrossRef]

], picosecond passive mode-locking [16

16. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

] and finally, femtosecond SESAM-initiated mode-locking was obtained in 2011 with 1.2 nJ and 110 fs pulses [17

17. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

]. The CW output power of 10 W was obtained recently using polycrystalline Cr:ZnS as an active element [18

18. I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In this Letter we demonstrate the first KLM-locked Cr:ZnS laser, generating very good spectral quality and highly stable 69 fs pulses at 550 mW output power. Currently, those are the shortest pulses at the highest reported power and energy, generated directly from the oscillator in the mid-IR spectral region. These promising results open the way to further power scaling and reducing pulse duration down to a single optical cycle.

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. The laser has been assembled according to the classic X-folded astigmatically compensated four-mirror cavity design. A vapor-grown diffusion doped 2.5 mm thick Cr:ZnS crystal with Cr2+ concentration of about 6·1018cm3 [19

19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012). [CrossRef]

] was mounted at Brewster angle on a copper heatsink without active cooling. The cavity consisted of two dichroic concave folding mirrors with radii of curvature 50 and 75 mm, a plane chirped high-reflector (HR) mirror [1

1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

,11

11. I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

], and a plane output coupler (OC). Three different OCs were used with transmission of about 1.5%, 4.5%, and 18% at 2.4 μm. The CW Er-fiber laser from IPG Photonics providing up to 5 W of polarized output at 1.61 μm was used as a pump source. The pump beam was focused onto the crystal by a 40 mm anti-reflective coated lens. The crystal absorbed about 80% of the incident pump power. The mode-locking was achieved by the soft-aperture Kerr-lens effect using a moving mirror as a starting mechanism. The compensation of the group-delay dispersion (GDD) was achieved by the 1 mm sapphire plate inserted into the OC arm of the cavity and a single chirped HR mirror, making the resonator design especially compact and stable.

Fig. 1. Schematic of the femtosecond Cr:ZnS KLM laser. OC, output coupler; HR, high-reflector.

All measurements were performed in the open air with 40%–50% relative humidity. The spectrum was analyzed by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at 1cm1 resolution. The pulse duration was measured using a home-made autocorrelator based on a two-photon absorption in an amplified Ge photodetector.

In CW laser experiments a 1.5% OC was used. A CaF2 prism was inserted into the HR arm of the cavity for spectral selection. The laser wavelength was tunable in the range between 2.17 and 2.88 μm. At the fixed wavelength of 2.367 μm about 380 mW output power was achieved for 2.75 W of incident pump power that corresponded to the slope efficiency of 15%.

KLM-locked laser action was obtained after adjusting the position of the 75 mm radii HR mirror near the end of the first stability region. The mode-locking was initiated by slightly tilting the chirped HR mirror. The available pump power was sufficient to achieve mode-locking with all the three OC mirrors. The laser routinely produced femtosecond soliton-like pulses at the repetition rate of 144.7 MHz. It was very stable in the certain output power range and once started could operate for several hours without readjustment.

The parameters of the mode-locked laser pulses for three different OCs are listed in Table 1. The interferometric autocorrelation trace of Cr:ZnS laser with the 18% OC, as well as the beam profile, are shown in Fig. 2, and the spectrum is plotted in Fig. 3.

Table 1. Laser Characteristics of KLM-locked Cr:ZnS Laser with Different OC Mirrors

table-icon
View This Table
Fig. 2. Autocorrelation trace of KLM Cr:ZnS laser pulses at highest output power. The inset shows beam profile at 50cm after the OC.
Fig. 3. Output spectrum of a femtosecond Cr:ZnS laser (black), calculated round-trip GDD (dark red), and intracavity losses due to the mirrors (blue-green dashed) and atmospheric absorption (gray).

Optical-to-optical efficiency of the laser reached 13% at maximum output power. The minimum pulse duration of 69 fs is equal to 8–9 optical cycles at this wavelength. Laser pulses were close to transform-limited with the time-bandwidth product of 0.335. The beam profile has a slight ellipticity, but is much better in quality than in the SESAM-based setup [19

19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012). [CrossRef]

], allowing convenient launching into a single-mode fiber [20

20. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

A chirp-free pulse, calculated from the measured output spectrum, would have had a duration of 65 fs. We assume that the extra 4 fs in the measured autocorrelation trace arise from the dispersion accumulated in the OC substrate (3 mm of YAG) and beamsplitters further down the beamline (3 mm CaF2 and 1 mm ZnSe). The good beam quality of the output pulse [Fig. 2(b)] allowed launching into the single-mode fiber for transport and is a prerequisite for efficient nonlinear wavelength conversion like e.g., in a sync-pumped OPO [12

12. K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Precise dispersion management is critical on the way toward few-optical-cycle pulse generation. Combination of anomalous dispersion of ZnS, normal dispersion of sapphire, and a chirped mirror [1

1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

,11

11. I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

,19

19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012). [CrossRef]

] allowed to obtain relatively flat GDD curve with total net GDD per cavity roundtrip about 450fs2 at central wavelength (Fig. 3).

The important aspect of the femtosecond oscillator is its power scalability. We found the high third-order optical nonlinearity of the Cr:ZnS crystal (90·1016cm2/W) to be the main power-limiting factor in our experiments. Further increasing of the pump power resulted in unstable double-pulsing and harmonic mode-locking regimes [21

21. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003). [CrossRef]

] for all available OCs. With a 4.5% OC we were able to obtain a comparatively stable double-pulsed mode-locking regime with a reproducible pulse separation of about 2.4 ps. The laser produced 720 mW of average output power with 2.5 nJ pulse energy. The autocorrelation trace and spectrum are plotted in Fig. 4. Further increase of the pulse energy would require reducing the peak power density inside the active medium. The chirped pulse oscillator concept [22

22. V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006). [CrossRef]

] is very promising from this point of view.

Fig. 4. Autocorrelation trace (a) and optical spectrum (b) of a double-pulsed KLM Cr:ZnS laser with pulse separation of 2.4 ps.

Since the gain bandwidth of Cr:ZnS crystal can support pulses as short as 15fs, it is instructive to discuss the spectrum-narowing factors preventing the pulse from further shortening. On the blue side, the spectrum is limited by the increased transmission in both input and output coupler mirrors (their combined transmission for 18% OC is shown by the blue-green dashed curve in Fig. 3) as well as by the intracavity third-order dispersion, causing the net GDD (dark-red solid curve) to become positive around 2.2 μm. The red side is mainly affected by the atmospheric absorption in the 100 cm long cavity (Fig. 3, solid gray curve). The effect of the water vapor absorption lines can be seen in the output spectrum as a characteristic modulation [23

23. V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Summarizing, we report the first KLM-locked laser based on a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal. The laser was passively mode-locked, using only one chirped mirror and a sapphire plate for dispersion compensation, and generated 69 fs pulses at 2.39 μm. The pulses are distinguished by high spectral quality, stability, and the highest reported output power of 550 mW generated directly from the oscillator in the mid-IR. Those are the shortest pulses generated so far in all Cr2+-based lasers. Further shortening of the pulse duration, potentially down to a single optical cycle, as well as power-scaling into several Watt domain, will lead to the practical and cost effective high-power ultrashort pulsed laser in the very important molecular absorption region.

This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF project P17973) and the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) projects FRITEK/191614, MARTEC-MLR, Nano 2021 project N219686.

References

1.

I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

2.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996). [CrossRef]

3.

I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, M. S. Mirov, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 898 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

6.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

7.

E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

8.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

11.

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

12.

K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002). [CrossRef]

15.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. Moskalev, V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

17.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

18.

I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012). [CrossRef]

20.

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003). [CrossRef]

22.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 10, 2012
Published: January 18, 2013

Citation
Nikolai Tolstik, Evgeni Sorokin, and Irina T. Sorokina, "Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser," Opt. Lett. 38, 299-301 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-38-3-299


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References

  1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.
  2. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996). [CrossRef]
  3. I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, M. S. Mirov, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 898 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.
  6. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.
  7. E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.
  8. M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.
  11. I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.
  12. K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. Moskalev, V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.
  17. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.
  18. I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010). [CrossRef]

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